Category: Shinto - Way of God
Excerpts from The Nihongi (Part 2)
Now Naga-sune-hiko sent a foot-messenger, who addressed the Emperor, saying: "There was formerly a child of the Heavenly deity, who came down from Heaven to dwell here, riding in a Rock-boat of Heaven. His name was Kushi-dama Nigi-haya-hi no Mikoto. He took to wife my younger sister Mi-kashiki-ya-bime (also called Naga-sune-hime, or Tomi-ya-hime) of whom he at length had a child, named Umashi-ma-te no Mikoto. Therefore did I take Nigi-haya-hi no Mikoto for my lord, and did service to him. Can it be that there are two seeds of the children of the Heavenly deity? Why should anyone else take the name of Child of the Heavenly deity and therewith rob people of their dominions?
I have pondered this in my heart, but have as yet failed utterly to believe it." The Emperor said: “There are many other children of the Heavenly deity. If he whom thou hast taken as thy Lord were truly a child of the Heavenly deity, there would be surely some object which thou couldst show to us by way of proof." -Naga-sune-biko accordingly brought a single Heavenly-feathered-arrow of Nigihaya-hi no Mikoto, and a foot-quiver, and exhibited them respectfully to the Emperor. The Emperor examined them, and said: " These are genuine." Then in his turn he showed to Naga-sune-hiko the single Heavenly-feathered-arrow and quiver which he wore. When Naga-sune-hiko saw the Heavenly token be became more and more embarrassed. But the murderous weapons were already prepared, and things were in such a state that he was unable to pause in his career. Therefore be adhered to his misguided scheme, and would not alter his purpose.
Nigi-haya-hi no -Mikoto, knowing from the first that the Heavenly deity had simply generously bestowed the Empire on the Heavenly Grandchild, and that in view of the perverse disposition of Naga-sune it would be useless to instruct him in the relation of Heaven to Man, put him to death. He then came with his army and made submission. The Emperor, who from the first had heard that Nigi-haya-hi no Mikoto had come down from Heaven, finding that he now had actually performed faithful service, accordingly praised him, and was gracious to him He was the ancestor of the Mono no Be House.
The year Tsuchi no to Hitsuji, Spring, 2nd month, 20th day. The Emperor commanded his generals to exercise the troops. At this time there were Tsuchi-gumo in three places, viz.: The Tohe of Nkihiki at Tada no Oka-zaki in the district of Sofu, the Kose Hofuri at Wani no Sakamoto and the Wi-Hofuri at Hosomi no Nagara no Okazaki. All of these, trusting to their valor, refused to present themselves at Court. The Emperor therefore sent detachments separately and put them all to death. There were, moreover, Tsuchi-gumo at the village of Taka-wohari, whose appearance was as follows: They had short bodies, and long arms and legs. They were of the same class as the pigmies. The Imperial troops wove nets of dolichos, which they flung over them and then slew them. Wherefore the name of that village was changed to Katsuraki. It is in the land of Ihare. Its ancient name was Kataru, or Katatachi. When our Imperial forces routed the enemy, a great army assembled and filled that country. Its name was accordingly changed to Ihare.
Another account says that when the Emperor on a previous occasion tasted the food of the sacred jars, he moved forward his army on an expedition toward the West. At this time the eighty bandits of Katsuraki were encamped together there. A great battle with the Emperor followed, and they were at length destroyed by the Imperial army. Therefore that place was called the village of Ihare. Again, the place where the Imperial troops made a warlike stand was called Takeda. The place where he built a castle was named Kita. Moreover, the place where the enemy fell in battle, their dead bodies prostrate, with their forearms for pillows, was called Tsura-maki-da.
The Emperor, in Autumn, the 9th month of the previous year, secretly took clay of the Heavenly Mount Kagu, with which he made eighty platters, and thereafter performing abstinence in person, sacrificed to all the gods. He was thereby at length enabled to establish the world in peace. Therefore he called the place where the clay was taken Haniyasu.
3rd month, 7th day. The Emperor made an order, saying: "During the six years that our expedition against the East has lasted, owing to my reliance on the Majesty of Imperial Heaven, the wicked bands have met death. It is true that the frontier lands are still unpurified, and that a remnant of evil is still refractory. But in the region of the Central Land there is no more wind and dust. Truly we should make a vast and spacious capital, and plan it great and strong.
"At present things are in a crude and obscure condition, and the people's minds are unsophisticated. They roost in nests or dwell in eaves . Their manners are simply what is customary. Now if a great man were to establish laws, justice could not fail to flourish. And even if some gain should accrue to the people, in what way would this interfere with the Sage's action? Moreover, it will be well to open up and clear the mountains and forests, and to construct a palace. Then I may reverently assume the Precious Dignity, and so give peace to my good subjects. Above, I should then respond to the kindness of the Heavenly Powers in granting me the Kingdom, and below, I should extend the line of the Imperial descendants and foster right-mindedness. Thereafter the capital may be extended so as to embrace all the six cardinal points, and the eight cords may be covered so as to form a roof. Will this not be well?
"When I observe the Kashiha-hara plain, which lies southwest of Mount Unebi, it seems the Center of the Land. I must set it in order."
Accordingly he in this month commanded officers to set about the construction of an Imperial Residence.
(661 B.C.) Year Kanoye Saru, Autumn, 8th month, 16th day. The Emperor, intending to appoint a wife, sought afresh children of noble families. Now there was a man who made representation to him, saying: "There is a child who was born to Koto-shiro-nushi no Kami by his union with Tama-kushi-hime, daughter of Mizo-kuhi-ni no Kami of Mishima. Her name is Hime-tatara-i-suzu-hime no Amikoto. She is a woman of remarkable beauty." The Emperor was rejoiced, and on the 24th day of the 9th month be received Hime-tatara-i-suzu-hime no Mikoto and made her his wife.
(660 B.C.) Year Kanoto Tori, Spring, 1st month 1st day. The Emperor assumed the Imperial Dignity in the Palace of Kashiha-bara. This year is reckoned the first year of his reign. He honored his wife by making her Empress. The children born to him by her were Kami-ya-wi-mimi no Mikoto and Kami-nunagaba mimi -no Mikoto.
Therefore there is an ancient saying in praise of this, as follows: "In Kashiha-bara in Unebi, he mightily established his palace-pillars on the foundation of the bottom-rock, and reared aloft the cross roof-timbers to the Plain of High Heaven. The name of the Emperor who thus began to rule the Empire was Kami Yamato Ihare-biko Hohodemi."
On the day on which he first began the Heavenly institution, Michi no Omi no Mikoto, the ancestor of the Ohotomo House, accompanied by the Oho-kume Be, was enabled, by means of a secret device received from the Emperor, to use incantations and magic formulas so as to dissipate evil influences. The use of magic formulas had its origin from this.
2nd year, Spring, 2nd month, 2nd day. The Emperor ascertained merit and dispensed rewards. To Michi no Omi no Mikoto he granted a site for a house in which to dwell at the village of Tsuki-zaka, thereby showing him special favor.
Moreover, he caused the Oho-kume to dwell at a place on the river-bank, west of Mount Unebi, now called Kume no Mura. Such was the origin of this name. Utsu-hiko was made Miyakko of the land of Yamato. Moreover, he gave to Ukeshi the younger the village of Takeda, constituting him Agata-nushi of Takeda. He was the ancestor of the Mohi-tori of Uda. Shiki the younger, whose personal name was Kuro-haya, was made Agata-nushi of Shiki. Moreover, he appointed a man called Tsune to be Miyakko of the Land of Katsuraki. The Yata-garasu was also included in the ranks of those who received rewards. His descendants are the Agata-nushi of Katsurano and the Tonomori Be.
(657 B.C.) 4th year, Spring, 2nd month, 23rd day. The Emperor issued the following decree: "The spirits of our Imperial ancestors reflecting their radiance down from Heaven, illuminate and assist us. All our enemies have now been subdued, and there is peace within the seas. We ought to take advantage of this to perform sacrifice to the Heavenly deities, and therewith develop filial duty."
He accordingly established spirit-terraces amongst the Tomi hills, which were called Kami-tsu-wono no Kaki-hara. Shimo-tsu-wono no Kaki-hara. There he worshiped his Imperial ancestors, the Heavenly deities.
(630 B.C.) 31st year, Summer, 4th month, Ist day. The Imperial palanquin made a circuit, in the course of which the Emperor ascended the Hill Waki Kamu no Hotsuma. Here, having viewed the shape of the land on all sides, he said: "Oh! What a beautiful country we have become possessed of! Though a blessed land of inner-tree-fiber, yet it resembles a dragon-fly licking its hinder parts." From this it first received the name of Akitsu-shima.
Of old, Izanagi no Mikoto, in naming this country, said: Yamato is the land of Ura-yasu: it is the land of Hosohoko no Chi-taru: it is is the land of Shiwa-Kami-Ho-tsuma."
Afterward Oho-namuchi no Oho-kami named it the land of Tama-gaki no Uchi-tsu-kuni.
Finally, when Nigi-haya-hi no Mikoto soared across the Great Void in a Heaven-rock-boat, be espied this region and descended upon it. Therefore he gave it a name and called it Sora-mitsu-Yamato.
42nd year, Spring, 1st month, 3rd day. He appointed Prince Kami-nunagaha-mimi -no Mikoto Prince Imperial.
76th year, Spring, 3rd month, 11th day. The Emperor died in the palace of Kashiba-bara. His age was then 127. The following year, Autumn, the 12th day of the 9th month, be was buried in the Misasagi, northeast of Mount Unebi.
THE NIHONGI - THE LAWS OF ROTOKU TENNO Book XXV
THE EMPEROR AME-YORODZU TOYO-HI
The Emperor Ame-yorodzu toyo-hi honored the religion of Buddha and despised the Way of the Gods (as is instanced by his cutting down the trees of the shrine of Iku-kuni-dama). He was of a gentle disposition, and loved men of learning. He made no distinction of noble and mean, and continually dispensed beneficent edicts.
At this time Ohotomo no Nagatoko no Muraji (his cognomen was Mumakahi), girt with a golden quiver, stood on the right hand of the throne, and Intigami no Takebe no Kimi, girt with a golden quiver, stood on the left hand of the throne. The functionaries, Omi, Muraji, Kuni no Miyakko, Tomo no Miyakko and the 180 Be, ranged in order, went round making obeisance. On this day, the title of Ko-so-bo was conferred on the Empress Toyo-takara, and Naka no Ohoye was made Prince Imperial, Abe no Uchimaro no Omi was made Sa-dai-jin, and Soga no Kurayamada Ishikaba no Maro no Omi was made U-dai-jin. A great brocade cap of honor was given to Nakatomi no Kamako no Muraji, and he was made Naijin with an increased feudal revenue of a large number of houses, etc., etc. Nakatomi no Kamako no Muraji cherished the most sincere loyalty. Trusting to his power as ruling Minister, he took place over the various functionaries. In respect therefore to advancements and dismissals, taking measures or abandoning them, everything was done in accordance with his counsel, etc., etc. The Buddhist priest Min Hoshi and Kuromaro Takamuko no Fubito were made national doctors.
19th day. The Emperor, the Empress Dowager, and the Prince Imperial summoned together the Ministers under the great tsuki tree, and made an oath appealing to the gods of Heaven and Earth, and saving:
"Heaven covers us: Earth upbears us: the Imperial way is but one. But in this last degenerate age, the order of Lord and Vassal was destroyed, until Supreme Heaven by Our hands put to death the traitors. Now, from this time forward, both parties shedding their hearts' blood, the Lord will eschew double methods of government, and the Vassal will avoid duplicity in his service of the sovereign! On him who breaks this oath, Heaven will send a curse and earth a plague, demons will slay them, and men will smite them. This is as manifest as the sun and moon."
The style 4th year of the Empress Ame-toyo-takara ikashi-hi tarashi-hime was altered to Daikwa, 1st year.
(645 A.D.) Daikwa, 1st year, Autumn, 8th month, 5th day. Governors of the Eastern provinces were appointed. Then the Governors were addressed as follows: "In accordance with the charge entrusted to Us by the gods of Heaven, We propose at this present for the first time to regulate the myriad provinces.
"When you proceed to your posts, prepare registers of all the free subjects of the State and of the people under the control of others, whether great or small. Take account also of the acreage of cultivated land. As to the profits arising from the gardens and ponds, the water and land, deal with them in common with the people. Moreover, it is not competent for the provincial Governors, while in their provinces, to decide criminal cases, nor are they permitted by accepting bribes to bring the people to poverty and misery. When they come up to the capital they must not bring large numbers of the people in their train. They are only allowed to bring with them the Kuni no Miyakko and the district officials. But when they travel on public business they may ride the horses of their -department, and eat the food of their department. From the rank of Suke upward those who obey this law will surely be rewarded, while those who disobey it shall be liable to be reduced in cap-rank. On all, from the rank of Hangwan downward, who accept bribes a fine shall imposed of double the amount, and they shall eventually be punished criminally according to the greater or less heinousness of the case. Nine men are allowed as attendants on a Chief Governor, seven on an assistant, and five on a secretary. If this limit is exceeded, and they are accompanied by a greater number, both chief and followers shall be punished criminally.
"If there be any persons who lay claim to a title, but who, not being Kuni no Miyakko, Tonio no Miyakko, or Inaki of districts by descent, unscrupulously draw up lying memorials, saying: 'From the time of our forefathers we have had charge of this Miyake or have ruled this district' -- in such cases, ye, the Governors, must not readily make application to the Court in acquiescence in such fictions, but must ascertain particularly the true facts before making your report.
"Moreover, on waste pieces of ground let arsenals be erected, and let the swords and armor, with the bows and arrows of the provinces and districts, be deposited together in them. In the case of the frontier provinces which border close on the Yemishi, let all the weapons be mustered together, and let them remain in the hands of their original owners. In regard to the six districts of the province of Yamato, let the officials who are sent there prepare registers of the population, and also take an account of the acreage of cultivated land. (This means to examine the acreage of the cultivated ground, and the numbers, houses, and ages of the people.)
"Ye Governors of provinces, take careful note of this and withdraw." Accordingly presents were made them of silk and cloth, which varied in the case of each person."
This day a bell and box were provided in the Court .The Emperor issued an order, saying: "If there be a complainant, in case the person in question belongs to a Tomo no Miyak-ko, let the Tomo no Miyakko first make inquiry and then report to Us. In case the person in question has an elder, let the elder first make inquiry and then report to Us. If, however, the Tomo no Miyakko or the elder does not come to a clear decision respecting the complaint let a document be received and placed in the box, and punishment will be inflicted according to the offense. The person who receives the document should at dawn take it and make report to the Inner Palace, when We will mark on it the year and month, and communicate it to the Ministers. In case there is any neglect to decide it, or if there are malpractises on the part of intriguing persons, let the complainant strike the bell. This is why the bell is hung and box provided in the Court. Let the people of the Empire know and appreciate Our intention.
"Moreover, the law of men and women shall be that the children born of a free man and a free woman shall belong to the father: if a free man takes to wife a slave woman, her children shall belong to the mother: if a free woman marries a slave man, the children of the marriage shall belong to the father; if they are slaves of two houses, the children shall belong to the mother. The children of temple-serfs shall follow the rule for freemen. But in regard to others who become slaves, they shall be treated according to the rule for slaves. Do ye now publish this well to the people as a beginning of regulations."
8th day. A messenger was sent to the Great Temple to summon together the Buddhist priests and nuns, and to address them on the part of the Emperor, saying: "In the 13th vear of the reign of the Emperor who ruled the world in the Palace of Shikishima, King Myong of Pekche reverently transmitted the Law of Buddha to our great Yamato. At this time the Ministers in a body were opposed to its transmission. Only Soga no Iname no Sukune believed in this Law, and the Emperor accordingly instructed him to receive it with reverence. In the reign of the Emperor who ruled the world in the Palace of Wosada, Soga no Mumako no Sukune, influenced by the reverence for his deceased father, continued to prize highly the doctrines of Buddha. But the other Ministers had no faith in it, and its institutes had almost perished when the Emperor instructed Miamako no Sukune reverently to receive this Law. In the reign of the Empress who ruled the world in the Palace of Woharida, Mumako no Sukune, on behalf of the Empress, made an embroidered figure of Buddha sixteen feet high and a copper image of Buddha sixteen feet high. He exalted the doctrine of Buddha and showed honor to its priests and nuns. It is Our desire anew to exalt the pure doctrine and brilliantly to promulgate great principles. We therefore appoint as professors the following ten persons: The S'ramana, Poknyang, Hye-un, Syang-an, Nyong-un, and Hye-chi, Taihoshi of Koma, and Sobin, Doto, Yerin, Yemyo and Yeon, chief priests of temples. We separately appoint the Hoshi, Yemyo, chief priest of the Temple of Kudara.
"Let these ten professors well instruct the priests in general the practise of the teachings of Shaka. It is needful that they be made to comply with the Law. If there is a difficulty about repairing temples built by any from the Emperor down to the Tomo no Miyakko, We will in all cases assist in doing so. We shall also cause Temple Commissioners and Chief Priests to be appointed, who shall make a circuit to all the temples, and having ascertained the actual facts respecting the priests and nuns, their male and female slaves, and the acreage of their cultivated lands, report all the particulars clearly to us."
19th day. Commissioners were sent to all the provinces to take a record of the total numbers of the people. The Emperor on this occasion made an edict, as follows:
"In the times of all the Emperors, from antiquity downward, subjects have been set apart for the purpose of making notable their reigns and banding down their names to posterity. Now the Omi and Muraji, the Tomo no Miyakko and the Kuni no Miyakko, have each one set apart their own vassals, whom they compel to labor at their arbitrary pleasure. Moreover, they cut off the bills and seas, the woods and plains, the ponds and rice-fields belonging to the provinces and districts, and appropriate them to themselves. Their contests are never-ceasing. Some engross to themselves many tens of thousands of shiro of rice-land, while others possess in all patches of ground too small to stick a needle into. When the time comes for the payment of taxes, the Omi, the Muraji, and the Tomo no Miyakko first collect them for themselves and then band over a share. In the case of repairs to palaces or the construction of misasagi, they each bring their own vassals, and do the work according to circumstances. The Book of Changes says: 'Diminish that which is above: increase that which is below: if measures are framed according to the regulations, the resources of the State suffer no injury, and the people receive no hurt.'
"At the present time, the people are still few. And yet the powerful cut off portions of land and water and converting them into private ground, sell it to the people, demanding the price yearly. From this time forward the sale of land is not allowed. Let no man without due authority make himself a landlord,, engrossing to himself that which belongs to the helpless."
The people were greatly rejoiced.
Winter, 12th month, 9th day. The Emperor removed the capital to Toyosaki in Nagara at Naniha. Old people, remarking upon this to one another, said: "The movement of rats toward Naniha from spring until summer was an omen of the removal of the capital."
24th day. It was reported from the land of Koshi: "Driftwood of the seashore passed away toward the east, leaving an impression on the sand like a plowed rice-field in appearance."
This year was the year Kinoto Mi (42nd) of the Cycle.
2nd year, Spring, 1st month, 1st day. As soon as the ceremonies of the New Year’s congratulations were over the Emperor promulgated an edict of reforms, as follows:
"I. Let the people established by the ancient Emperors, etc., as representatives of children be abolished, also the Miyake of various places and the people owned as serfs by the Wake, the Omi, the Muraji, the Tomo no Miyakko, the kuni no Miyakko and the Mura no Obito. Let the farmsteads in various places be abolished." Consequently fiefs were granted for their sustenance to those of the rank of Daibu and upward on a descending scale. Presents of cloth and silk stuffs were given to the officials and people, varying in value.
"Further We say. It is the business of the Daibu to govern the people. If they discharge this duty thoroughly, the people have trust in them, and an increase of their revenue is therefore for the good of the people.
"II. The capital is for the first time to be regulated, and Governors appointed for the Home provinces and districts.
"Let barriers, outposts, guards, and post-horses, both special and ordinary, be provided, bell-tokens made, and mountains and rivers regulated.
For each ward in the capital let there be appointed one alderman, and for four wards one chief alderman Who shall be charged with the superintendence of the population, and the examination of criminal matters. For appointment as chief aldermen of wards let men be taken belonging to the wards, of unblemished character, firm and upright, so that they may fitly sustain the duties of the time. For appointments as aldermen, whether of rural townships or of city wards, let ordinary subjects be taken belonging to the township or ward, of good character and solid capacity. If such men are not to be found in the township or ward in question, it is permitted to select and employ men of the adjoining township or ward.
"The Home provinces shall include the region from the River Yokogaha at Nabari on the east, from Mount Senoyama in Kii on the south, from Kushibuchi in Akashi on the west, and from Mount Afusaka-yama in Sasanami in Afumi on the north. Districts of forty townships are constituted Greater Districts, of from thirty to four townships are constituted Middle Districts, and of three or fewer townships are constituted Lesser Districts. For the district authorities, of whatever class, let there be taken Kuni no Miyakko of unblemished character, such as may fitly sustain the duties of the time and made Tairei and Shorei. Let men of solid capacity and intelligence who are skilled in writing and arithmetic be appointed assistants and clerks.
"The number of special or ordinary post-horses given shall in all cases follow the number of marks on the posting bell-tokens. When bell-tokens are given to officials of the provinces and barriers, let them be held in both cases by the chief official, or in his absence by the assistant official.
"III. Let there now be provided for the first time registers of population, books of account and a system of the receipt and regranting of distribution-land .
"Let every fifty houses be reckoned a township, and in every township let there be one alderman who shall be charged with the superintendence of the population the direction of the sowing of crops and the cultivation of mulberry-trees, the prevention and examination of offenses, and the enforcement of the payment of taxes and of forced labor.
"For rice-land, thirty paces in length by twelve paces in breadth shall be reckoned a tan. Ten tan make one cho. For each tan the tax is two sheaves and two bundles (such as can be grasped in the hand) of rice; for each cho the tax is twenty-two sheaves of rice. On mountains or in valleys where the land is precipitous, or in remote places where the population is scanty, such arrangements are to be made as may be convenient.
"IV. The old taxes and forced labor are abolished, and a system of commuted taxes instituted. These shall consist of fine silks, coarse silks, raw silk and floss silk, all in accordance with what is produced in the locality. For each cho of rice-land the rate is one rod of fine silk, or for four cho one piece forty feet in length by two and a half feet in width. For coarse silk the rate is two rods (per cho), or one piece for every two cho of the same length and width as the fine silk. For cloth the rate is four rods of the same dimensions as the fine and coarse silk, i.e., one tan for each cho. (No rates of weight are anywhere given for silk or floss silk.) Let there be levied separately a commuted house tax. All houses shall pay each one rod and two feet of cloth. The extra articles of this tax, as well as salt and offerings, will depend on what is produced in the locality. For horses for the public service, let every hundred houses contribute one horse of medium quality. Or if the horse is of superior quality, let one be contributed by every two hundred houses. If the horses have to be purchased, the price shall be made up by a payment from each house of one rod and two feet of cloth. As to weapons, each person shall contribute a sword, armor, bow and arrows, a flag, and a drum. For coolies, the old system, by which one coolie was provided by every thirty houses, is altered, and one coolie is to be furnished from every fifty houses (one is for employment as a menial servant) for allotment to the various functionaries. Fifty houses shall be allotted to provide rations for one coolie, and one house shall contribute two rods and two feet of cloth and five masu of rice in lieu of service.
For waiting-women in the Palace, let there be furnished the sisters or daughters of district officials of the rank of Shorei or upward - good-looking women (with one male and two female servants to attend on them), and let 100 houses be allotted to provide rations for one waiting-woman.
The cloth and rice supplied in lieu of service shall, in every case, follow the same rule as for coolies."
In this month the Emperor occupied the separate Palace of Koshiro. He sent messengers to command the provinces and districts to repair the arsenals. Yemishi came and did homage.
One book says: “The Miyake of Kosbiro, in the village of Sayabe, at Naniba, was pulled down, and a temporary Palace erected."
2nd month, 15th day. The Emperor proceeded to the Eastern Gate of the Palace, where, by Soga, Oho-omi of the Right, he decreed as follows:
"The God Incarnate, the Emperor Yamato-neko, who rules the world, gives command to the Ministers assembled in his presence, to the Omi, Muraji, Kuni no Miyakko, Tomo no Miyakko, and subjects of various classes, saying:
"We are informed that wise rulers of the people bung a bell at their gate, and so took cognizance of the complaints of their subjects; they erected buildings in the thoroughfares, where they listened to the censures of the passers-by. Even the opinions of the grass and firewood gatherers they inquired personally and used for their guidance. We, therefore, on a former occasion, made an edict, saying: 'In ancient times the Empire was ruled by having at the Court flags of honor for the encouragement of good, and a board of censure, the object being to diffuse principles of Government and to invite remonstrances.' All this served widely to ascertain the opinions of those below. Kwan-Tsze said:
The Emperor Hwang by establishing the Conferences of the Bright Hall, observed the opinions of the wise on the upper hand, while the Emperor Yao, having the inquiries of the street-houses, listened to the people on the lower hand. Shun again had flags to proclaim merit and thus secure publicity; and Yu set up a drum at his Court, thus providing for the investigation into expectations. Thang had the Court of the general control of Districts, whereby he observed the faults of the people. King Wu had the park of the Spirit terrace, and therefore the wise had advancement. Thus the sage Emperor and Illustrious Sovereigns of antiquity possessed and did not lose; they gained and did not destroy.'
"The object of hanging up a bell, of providing a box, and of appointing a man to receive petitions, is to make those who have grievances or remonstrances deposit their petitions in the box. The receivers of petitions are commanded to make their report to Us every morning. When We receive this report We shall draw the attention of the Ministers to it, and cause them to consider it, and We trust that this may be done without delay. But if there should be neglect on the part of the Ministers, and a want of diligence or partisan intrigues, and if We, moreover, should refuse to listen to remonstrance, let the complainant strike the bell. There has been already an Imperial command to this effect. But some time afterward there was a man of intelligence and uprightness who, cherishing in his heart the spirit of a national patriot, addressed Us a memorial of earnest remonstrance, which he placed in the box prepared for the purpose.
We therefore now publish it to the black-haired people here assembled. This memorial runs as follows: ' Those subjects who come to the capital in connection with the discharge of their duty to the Government of the Country, are detained by the various public functionaries and put to forced labor of various kinds, etc., etc.' We are still moved with strong sympathy by this. How could the people expect that things would come to this? Now no long time has elapsed since the capital was removed, so that so far from being at home, we are, as it were, strangers. It is therefore impossible to avoid employing the people, and they have therefore been, against Our will, compelled to labor. As often as Our minds dwell on this We have never been able to sleep in peace. When We saw this memorial we could not refrain from a joyous exclamation. We have accordingly complied with the language of remonstrance, and have put a stop to the forced services at various places.
"In a former edict, We said: 'Let the man who remonstrates sign his name.' Those who disobey this injunction are doubtless actuated by a wish to serve their country, and not by a desire of personal gain. Whether a man signs his name or not, let him not fail to remonstrate with Us on Our neglect or forgetfulness."
Another edict was made as follows: "There are many things of which the assembled people of the land complain. We are now about to explain our principles. Listen attentively to what We say. Those who come to the capital and assemble at Court in order to obtain decisions of doubtful points should not disperse in the morning, but remain together in attendance at Court."
Koryo, Pekche, Imna, and Silla all together sent envoys to offer tribute.
22nd day. The Emperor returned from the detached Palace of Koshiro.
3rd month, 2nd day. An edict was issued to the Governors of the Eastern provinces, saving: "Do all ye Ministers and Daibu assembled in attendance on Us, as well as ye Omi, Muraji, Kuni no Miyakko, and Tomo no Miyakko, and also ye subjects of every class, listen to this: He that is lord between Heaven and Earth and rules the myriad people ought not to exercise control alone: be must have Ministers to support him. From generation to generation, therefore, Our Imperial ancestors have governed along with the ancestors of you, My Ministers. It is Our wish also, with the protecting power of the Gods, to associate you with Ourselves in the government. We therefore, on a former occasion, appointed Daibu, of good family, to the government of the eight Eastern provinces.
Then the Governors went to their posts. Six obeyed the laws, and two were regardless of Our commands. In each case censure or praise became audible. We thereupon commended those who kept the law, and were severe with those who disregarded the instructions given them. He that would be a ruler, whether he be Lord or Minister, should first correct himself, and then correct others. If he do not correct himself, how shall he be able to correct others? He therefore who does not correct himself, be he Lord or be he Minister, will meet with calamity. Should one not be watchful? If ye, the leaders, are upright, who shall presume to be otherwise? Do ye now be guided by Our former commands in dispensing your judgments."
19th day. The Emperor made a decree to the Choshushi of the Eastern provinces, saying:
"Hear this, all ye Ministers and Daibu assembled in Our presence, as well as ye Kuni no Miyakko and Tomo no Miyakko, together with the subjects of all classes! In the 8th month of last year, We in person admonished you, saving: 'Do not use your official authority to appropriate public or private property: you should consume food of your own domain, and ride horses of your own domain. Those who disregard this admonition, if of the rank of Assistant Governor or higher, shall be degraded in official rank, if of the rank of Clerk or lower, shall be sentenced to flogging. Those who convert property to their own use shall be mulcted in double its value.' Such was the edict which We issued. Now, when We inquired from the Choshushi and the Miyakko of the various provinces whether the local Governors, when they proceeded to their posts, attended to this admonition or not, the Choshushi and the others informed Us fully of the facts, to wit: The offense of Kuhi, Hodzumi no Omi, consists in having made exactions from each family among the people, and though he repented and gave back the things, not doing so completely.
His two assistants, Fuse no Omi and Shidamu, Kose no Omi, have offended by not correcting the error of their chief, etc., etc. The inferior officials have all been guilty of offenses. The offense of Kose no Tokune no Omi consists in having made exactions from each family among the people, and though he repented and returned the things, not doing so completely. He has, moreover, taken away the horses of the agricultural serfs. His two assistants, Yenowi no Muraji and Oshizaka no Muraji, did not correct the faults of their chief, but on the contrary joined with him in prosecuting their own advantage. They have, moreover, taken away horses belonging to the Kuni no Miyakko. Sumi, Utena no Atahe, although at first he remonstrated with his chief, yet at last became corrupt along with him. The inferior officials are all guilty of offenses. The offense of Ki no Marikida no Omi consists in having sent men to Asakura no Kimi and Winouhe [Inouye] no Kimi to fetch their horses for him to look at. Further, he made Asakura no Kimi manufacture swords. Further, be got from Asakura no Kimi his bow-cloth.
Further, he did not honestly return to their owners the articles sent by the Kuni no Miyakko in lieu of weapons, but delivered them to the Kuni no Miyakko in an irregular manner. Further, in the province committed to his charge, he allowed himself to be robbed of a sword. Further, in the province of Yamato he allowed himself to be robbed of a sword. These are the offenses of Ki no Omi and of his assistants, Obo-guchi, Miwa no Kimi, and Momoyori, Kahabe no Omi. Their subordinate officials, Shibatsu, Kahabe no Omi, Tajibi no Fukame, Mozu no Nagaye, Katsuraki no Saigusa, Naniha no Kubikame, Tnukabi no Isogimi, Maro, Iki no Fubito, Tajihi no Inume; these eight persons, all are guilty of offenses. The offense of Adzumi no Muraji consists in this-that when Wadoku no Fubito was ill, he caused the Kuni no Miyakko to send him government property. Further, he took horses belonging to the Yube. The offense of his assistant Momoyori, Kashihade no Omi, consists in his having received and stored in his house articles paid in lieu of hay.
Further, he took the horses of the Kuni no Miyakko and exchanged them for others. The two brothers, Ihatsutsu and Yumaro, Kahabe no Omi, have also been guilty of offenses. Ohochi no Muraji's offense consists in his having disobeyed Our former decree, which was as follows: 'Let not the local Governors personally judge the plaints of the people in the districts placed under their charge.' He has disobeyed this edict in that he has taken it upon himself personally to judge the plaints of the men of Udo, and the matter of the slaves of Nakatomi no Toko. Nakatomi no Toko is equally guilty with him in this matter. The offense of Kisbida no Omi consists in his having bad his official sword stolen when he was in the province of Yamato. This showed a want of circumspection. As for Womidori no Omi and Tamba no Omi, they have been simply incompetent, but not guilty of any offense.
The two men, Imbe no Konomi and Mutsuki, Nakatomi no Ifuraji, have also been guilty of offenses. Neither of these two men viz., Hada no Omi and Taguchi no Omi has committed any offense. The offense of Heguri no Omi consists in his having neglected to investigate the plaints of the men of Mikuni. Upon a review of these facts we find that all this is owing to the neglect and incompetence of you three, viz., Ki no Mariki no Omi, Kose no Tokune no Omi, and Hodzumi no Kuhi no Omi. Is it not painful to Us to think of your disobedience to Our edict? Now if he who has pastoral care of the people, whether as Lord or Minister, gives a personal example of upright conduct, who shall presume to do otherwise? But if he, whether Lord or Minister, be not upright in heart, it is fit that he should bear the guilt. What avails it to repent afterward? We shall therefore consider the cases of all these local Governors and punish them according to the gravity of their offenses.
"With regard, moreover, to the Kuni no Miyakko who have disobeyed Our edict by sending presents to the Governors of their provinces, and, at length joining with them in the pursuit of gain, constantly conceive foul wickedness, repressive measures are indispensable. But although such are Our thoughts, we have only begun to occupy our new palace, and are about to make offerings to all the Kami, both which matters belong to the present year. Moreover, it is not meet to employ the people in labor during the months of agriculture. But in connection with the building of a new palace, it was decidedly impossible to avoid doing so. Deeply conscious of both these considerations, We proclaim a general amnesty throughout the Empire. From this time forward, let the local Governors of provinces and districts be zealous and do their utmost. Let them avoid profligacy. Let messengers be sent to release all banished men of the various provinces, and all prisoners in the gaols without exception.
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