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Glossary and Sources - Part 8

The Life of Buddha

GLOSSARY

asuras: Beings who like to fight.

Bodhi tree: A pipal tree that is known as the 'tree of enlightenment'. The tree under which Gautama achieved enlightenment and became a Buddha.

Bodhisattva: A compassionate being who enlightens himself and helps others to be enlightened.

Buddha: The Enlightened or Awakened One. The word 'Bodhi' means to awaken.

Buddha Hall: The main room inside a Buddhist temple.

Dharma: Teachings of the Buddha

enlightenment: Understanding the truth of life, freedom from ignorance.

Five Precepts: The five rules of conduct given by the Buddha to his disciples: no killing, no stealing, no sexual misconduct, no false speech, no intoxicants.

Four Noble Truths: The first teachings spoken by the Buddha: the truth of suffering, the cause of suffering, the end of suffering, and the Path leading to the end of suffering.

hungry ghosts: Ghosts that suffer a lot because they are greedy.

Jataka tales: stories about the past lives of the Buddha.

karma: 'Action' or the law of cause and effect. For every action there is a cause.

Kathina: A 'festival of giving' held in autumn, where people make offerings to the monks and nuns.

lamas: Tibetan religious leaders.

lotus posture: A meditation posture.

lotus: The lotus symbolizes the purity of the Buddha. It grows out of mud, yet it is not defiled by it.

Mahayana: The tradition of Northern Buddhism.

mantras: Symbolic phrases that Buddhists chant.

meditation: A method of calming and training the mind.

Middle Way: The path in life prescribed by the Buddha, the path between extremes.

Nirvana: An everlasting state of great joy and peace.

Noble Eightfold Path: The Buddha's prescription for ending suffering. It is made up of eight parts: right views, right thought, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, and right concentration.

offering bowl: A bowl that nuns and monks receive offerings in.

Pali: An ancient language of India that the Buddhist Sutras were originally written in.

Pratyekabuddha: Hermits who become enlightened by themselves.

puja: A Pali word for Buddhist worship.

Sangha: The community of Buddhist nuns and monks.

Sanskrit: An ancient language of India that the Buddhist Sutras were written in.

Six Perfections: The six ideals that a Bodhisattva perfects: giving morality, patience, effort, concentration, and wisdom.

stupas: Monuments to the Buddha

Sutras: The Buddha's teachings in writing.

thankas: Wall hangings found in Tibetan temples.

Theravada: The tradition of Southern Buddhism.

Three Refuges: The Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.

Tripitaka: The 'three baskets', a collection of the Buddha's written teachings.

Triple Jewel: The Buddha, the Dharma, and the Sangha.

Ullambana: A Buddhist festival when offerings are given to the Sangha..

Wheel of Life and Death: The six worldly states of rebirth: gods, asuras, humans, animals, hungry ghosts, and hell-beings.

zafu: A round meditation cushion used in Japanese Buddhism.

Zen: Japanese meditation.

Bullet

SOURCES:

Bhagwat, N. K. The Dhammapada And The Buddha's Last Bequest.Taiwan: The Corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation.

Buddhism: A Brief Introduction. Developing Virtue Secondary School.Burlingame, California: Buddhist Translation Society, 1996.

Buddhist Studies. Curriculum Development Institute of Singapore. Singapore: Pan Pacific Publications Pte Ltd, 1984.

Cohen, Joan Lebold. Buddha. New York: Delacore Press, 1969.

Dhammika, Ven. S. Good Question--Good Answer. Taiwan: The Corporate Body of the Buddha Educational Foundation.

Filiality Buddhist Text Translation Society. Burlingame, California: Sino-American Buddhist Association, 1982-83.

Flower Adornment Sutra. Universal Worthy's Conduct and Vows. Chapter 40. Burlingame, California: Buddhist Translation Text Society, 1983.

Human Roots. Buddhist Text Translation Society. Burlingame, California: Sino-American Buddhist Association, 1982-83.

Hui, Pitt Chin. Lord Buddha. Singapore: World Fellowship of Buddhists.

I Must Keep My Link Bright and Strong. Sunday School Department. San Francisco: Buddhist Churches of America, San Francisco, 1966.

India Long Ago. Sunday School Department. San Francisco: Buddhist Churches of America, San Francisco, 1966

Jones, J. J. Mahavastu. England: Pali Text Society, 1952.

Lord Buddha Speaks to Me. Sunday School Department. San Francisco: Buddhist Churches of America, 1966.

Nan, Upasaka Li Ping. A Buddhist Goal That Can Be Achieved in One's Present Life. Taiwan: Prajna Foundation.

Shurangama Mantra. Buddhist Text Translation Society: Burlingame, California: Sino-American Buddhist Association, 1981.

Shurangama Sutra. Buddhist Text Translation Society: Burlingame, California: Sino-American Buddhist Association, 1979.

he Human Source. Buddhist Text Translation Society. Burlingame, California: Sino-American Buddhist Association, 1982.

The Teaching of Buddha. Sunday School Department. San Fransisco: Buddhist Churches of America, 1967.

Thompson, Mel. The Buddhist Experience. England, Hodder & Stroughton Educational, 1993.

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