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Meet the Egyptian Pantheon

egyptian_gods

Human and semihuman forms of some of the chief Egyptian deities: 1) Horus, son of Osiris, a sky god closely connected with the king. 2) Set, enemy of Horus and Osiris, god of storms and disorder. 3) Thoth, a moon deity and god of writing, counting and wisdom. 4) Khnum, a ram god who shapes men and their kas on his potter's wheel. 5) Hathor, goddess of love birth and death. 6) Sobek, the crocodile god, Lord of the Faiyum. 7) Ra, the sun god in his many forms. 8) Amon, a creator god often linked with Ra. 9) Ptah, another creator god and the patron of craftsmen. 10) Anubis, god of mummification. 11) Osiris, god of agriculture and ruler of the dead. 12) Isis, wife of Osiris, mother of Horus and Mistress of Magic.

Amaunet – A female counterpart to Amon and one of the primordial gods of the Hermopolitian Ogdoad (group of eight gods). She was also worshipped at Thebes along with Amon and Mut.

Amon – Usually associated with the wind, or things hidden, and was also of the Hermopolitian Ogdoad. At Thebes he became Amon-Re, king of the gods. He was part of the Theban Triad, along with Mut and Khonsu.

Antaios – He was originally a double god, “the two falcons”, that was later joined to create one, probably that of Horus.

Anubis – A jackal-headed god associated with mummification and the afterlife in Egyptian mythology. Anubis is the “Keeper of Divine Justice”, and was given by the gods the role of sovereignty of souls. Deciding the weight of “truth” by weighing the Heart against Ma’at, whom was often depicted as an ostrich feather, Anubis dictated the fate of souls. In this manner, he was a Lord of the Underworld, only usurped by Osiris.

Anuket – Worshipped at Elephantine, she was associated with the gazelle.

Apis – Seen as the bull with a solar disk between its horns, Apis was associated with Osiris and Ptah.

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Aton – Also known as Aten, he was worshipped at Tell ‘Amarna. He became the focused upon deity of the arguably monolatristic, henotheistic, or even monistic religion  of Atenism  of which Amenhotep IV established, who later took the name Akhenaten in worship and recognition of Aten. The worship of Aten seemed to stop shortly after Akhenaten’s death.

Atum – A primordial god that was represented in the form of a human and a serpent. He was the supreme god in the Heliopolitan Ennead (group of nine gods) and formed with Re to create Re-Atum.

Bastet – The goddess Bastet was usually represented as a woman with the head of a domesticated cat. However, up until 1000 BC she was portrayed as a lioness. Bastet was the daughter of Re, the sun god.

Hathor – The goddess of love, dance and alcohol was depicted as a cow. At Thebes she was also the goddess of the dead. She was worshipped at Dendera as the consort of Horus and Edfu, and was associated with Isis at Byblos.

Horus – The earliest royal god was the shape of a falcon, with the sun and moon as his eyes. The sky-god was the ruler of the day. The many forms of Horus are; Re-Harakhti, Harsiesis, Haroeris, Harendotes, Khenti-irti, Khentekhtay (the crocodile-god), and Harmakhis, which is Horus on the horizons, in which the Sphinx of Giza is considered to be his aspect.

Isis – The mother of Horus and sister and consort of Osiris was worshipped at Philae. Associated with Astarte, Hathor, Nut and Sothis, she was later worshipped over the entire Roman Empire.

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Khnum – Resembling a human with a rams head, he was worshipped in Hypselis, Esna, Antinoe and Elephantine.

Khonsu – the moon god was the son of Amon and Mut. The main temple at Karnak is dedicated to him.

Maat - The goddess of truth and wisdom, she is the close companion to the god Thoth. It is to her hall that the deceased is taken to be questioned before being allowed into the Egyptian heaven. She symbolizes the laws of existence, especially the law of creation and constant renewal. The ostrich feather in her headband became a symbol of truth.

Min – God of fertility coalesced with Amon and Horus. Min was mainly worshipped at Coptos and Akhmim.

Mut – Worshipped at Thebes, she was a consort of Amon and part of the Theban Triad (group of three gods).

Nefer-tem - The son of Ptah and Sekhmet, Nefer-Tem is one of the examiners in the hall of Maat where the fate of the deceased person's soul is decided. He is of the element of fire, and his name means "beautiful sun."

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Nepthys - She was the wife of the god Set. Although aware of the enmity between Set and his nephew Horus, she raised the young god. In the old papyri Isis and Nepthys are frequently shown side by side: Isis is bountiful and fertile while Nepthys illustrates quiet, more reflective emotional depths.

Nut – Mother of the sun, moon and heavenly bodies.

Osiris – He is regarded as the dead king that watches over the nether world and is rejuvenated in his son Horus. As the symbol of eternal life he was worshipped at Abydos and Philae.

Ptah – Worshipped in Memphis, he coalesced with Sokaris and Osiris.

Re – He was the sun god of Heliopolis. From the fifth Dynasty onwards he becomes a national god and is combined with the supreme deity Amon.

Sept - One of the names of the god Sept was the "soul of Ra", and he was closely aligned with the star Sothis, (now called Sirius). He was the protector of the east where Ra emerged every morning, and was the destroyer of the enemies of the gods.

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Serapis – He was mainly worshipped in Alexandria and was later worshipped by the Greeks as Zeus. He was never fully accepted by the Egyptians in the Ptolemaic period.

Sekhmet – She was part of the Memphite Triad with Ptah and Nefertem. She was the mistress of war and sickness.

Set (Seth) -The son of Geb and Nut in the Heliopolitan Ennead, Set rules the realm of the night. An ancient diety considered to be a god of life and plenty, the god fell into disfavour, and in later centuries was depicted as the murderer of Osiris and adversary of Horus.This powerful god was regarded as god of the desert, making him a god of foreign lands.

Shu – He was an ancient cosmic power and was regarded as the god of the air and the bearer of heaven.

Sobek – He was a crocodile god and was worshipped at the Faiyum and Ombos. During the middle Kingdom he coalesced with Re, Sobek-Re, and was worshipped as primordial deity and creator-god.

Thoth – He was worshipped as a baboon in Hermopolis. He was the god of sacred writings and wisdom.

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