Category: Shinto - Way of God Views: 2923
Excerpts from The Nihongi (Part 3)
In contradistinction from the rest, the following six men, viz., Shihoya no Konoshiro, Kamikozo no Saigusa, Asakura no Kimi, Mariko no Muraji, Mikaba no Oho-tomo noAtabe and Suzuki wo no Atabe, have been obedient to the Emperor. We profoundly commend their sentiments.
"Let the official rice-fields belonging to the public offices in various places be done away with, as well as the lent-rice in various places belonging to the Ko-so-bo Kibishima and let her official rice-lands be distributed among all Our Ministers and Tomo no Miyakko. Moreover, let rice-land and hill-tracts be given to those temples which are omitted from the registers."
20th day. The Prince Imperial, by a messenger, addressed a petition to the Emperor, saying: "In the reigns of the former Emperors, they treated the Empire as a whole, and so ruled it. But, when we come to the present time, there was division and separation; to the injury of the Work (the work of the State is meant). Now that it has devolved on the Emperor our Sovereign to have pastoral charge of the myriad people, Heaven and Man respond harmoniously to each other and the government has been reformed I, therefore, filled with joy and veneration, place it on my head, and prostrating myself, address Your Majesty: 'The Emperor who now rules the Land of the Eight Islands as an Incarnate Deity inquired of thy servant, saying: "Should the Kosbiro no Iribe in the possession of Ministers, Muraji, Tomo no -Miyakko, Kuni no Miyakko, and established in the days of former Emperors, the Mina no Iribe in the private possession of Imperial Princes, and the Mina no Iribe belonging to the Imperial Father 78 Ohoye (Hikobito Obove is meant), as well as their Miyake, be allowed to remain the same as in former generations, or not?" Thy servant having received this command with reverence replies respectfully, saying: "In Heaven there are not two suns: in a country there are not two rulers. It is therefore the Emperor alone who is supreme over all the Empire, and who has a right to the services of the myriad people. Make a special selection of laborers from the Iribe and from the people granted in fee, and follow the former arrangement. For the rest, it may be feared that they will be put to forced labor on private authority. I therefore offer to the Emperor 524 men of the Iribe, and 181 Miyake."
22nd day. The Emperor made a decree, as follows: "We are informed that a Prince of the Western Land admonished his people, saying: 'Those who made interments in ancient times resorted to a high ground which they formed into a tomb. They did not pile up a mound, nor did they plant trees. The inner and outer coffin were merely enough to last till the bones decayed, the shroud was merely sufficient to last till the flesh decayed. I shall therefore cultivate the unproductive pieces of land occupied by these tombs, to the end that their place may be forgotten after changing generations. Deposit not in them gold or silver or copper or iron, and let earthenware objects alone represent the clay chariots and straw figures of antiquity. Let the interstices of the coffin be varnished. Let the offerings consist of rice presented three times, and let not pearls or jewels be placed in the mouth of the deceased. Bestow not jewel-shirts or jade armor. All these things are practices of the unenlightened vulgar.' Again it is said: 'Burial is putting away, and proceeds from the desire to prevent the dead from being seen by people.' Of late, the poverty of our people is absolutely owing to the construction of tombs. We now issue regulations making distinction of noble and mean.
"The inner dimensions of tombs of persons of the rank of Princes and upward shall be nine feet in length by five in width. Their outer limits shall be nine fathoms square and their height five fathoms. The work shall be completed by 1000 laborers in seven days. At the time of interment white cloth shall be used for the hangings of the bier, etc. A hearse may be used.
"The inner dimensions of tombs of Superior Ministers shall be similar in length, breadth, and height to the above. Their outer limits shall be seven fathoms square, and they shall be three fathoms in height." The work shall be completed by 500 laborers in five days. At the time of interment white cloth shall be used for the hangings of the bier, which shall be borne on men's shoulders.
"The inner dimensions of a tomb of a Minister of a lower class shall be in every respect similar in length, breadth, and height to the above. Their outer limits shall be five fathoms square, and they shall be two and a half fathoms in height. The work shall be completed by 250 laborers in three days. At the time of interment white cloth shall be used for hangings. In other matters the same rule as before is to be followed.
"The inner dimensions of the tombs of persons of the rank of Dainin and Shonin shall be nine feet in length and four feet in height and breadth. The ground shall be made level and no mound raised. The work shall be completed by 100 laborers in one day.
"In the case of persons from the rank of Dairei to that of Shochi inclusive, the tombs shall in all respects follow the rule of Dainin, but the work shall be completed by fifty laborers in one day.
"Let small stones be used for the tombs of all from the rank of Prince down to that of Shochi, and let white cloth be used for the hangings.
"When ordinary persons die, let them be buried in the ground, and let the hangings be of coarse cloth. Let the interment not be delayed for a single day.
"The construction of places of temporary interment is not allowed in any case, from Princes down to common people.
"Not only in the Home provinces, but in the provinces generally, let plots of ground be set apart for interments. It is not permitted to pollute the earth by dispersed interments in various places.
"When a man dies, there have been cases of people sacrificing themselves by strangulation, or of strangling others by way of sacrifice, or of compelling the dead man's horse to be sacrificed, or of burying valuables in the grave in honor of the dead, or of cutting off the hair, and stabbing the thighs and pronouncing a eulogy on the dead (while in this condition). Let all such old customs be entirely discontinued.
"A certain book says: 'No gold or silver, no silk brocades, and no colored stuffs are to be buried.' Again it is said: 'From the Ministers of all ranks down to the common people, it is not allowed to use gold or silver.
"Should there be any cases of this decree being disregarded and these prohibitions infringed, the relations shall surely receive punishment.
"Again, there are many cases of persons who, having seen, say that they have not seen, or who, having not seen, say that they have seen, or who, having heard, say that they have not heard, or who, having not heard, say that they have beard, being deliberate liars, and devoid of truth in words and in sight.
"Again, there have been many cases in which slaves, both male and female, false to their masters in their poverty, betake themselves of their own accord to influential houses in quest of a livelihood, which influential houses forcibly detain and purchase them, and do not send them to their original owners.
"Again, there have been very many cases in which wives or concubines, when dismissed by their husbands, have after the lapse of years, married other husbands, as ordinary morality allows. Then their former husbands, after three or four years, have made greedy demands on the second husband's property, seeking their own gain.
"Again, there have been very many cases in which men, relying on their power, have rudely demanded people's daughters in marriage. In the interval, however, before going to his house, the girl has, of her own accord, married another, and the rude suitor has angrily made demands of the property of both families for his own gain.
"Again, there have been numerous cases of this kind. Sometimes a wife who has lost her husband marries another man after the lapse of ten or twenty years and becomes his spouse, or an unmarried girl is married for the first time. Upon this, people, out of envy of the married pair, have made them perform purgation."'
"Again, there are cases in which women, who have become men's wives and who, being put away owing to their husbands' dislike of them, have, in their mortification at this injury, compelled themselves to become blemished slaves.
"Again, there are cases in which the husband, having frequent occasion to be jealous of his wife's illicit intercourse with others, voluntarily appeals to the authorities to decide the matter. Let such persons not lay their information until they have obtained, let us say, three credible witnesses to join with them in making a declaration. Why should they bring forward ill-considered plaints?
"Again, there have been cases of men employed on forced labor in border lands who, when the work was over and they were returning to their village, have fallen suddenly ill and lain down to die by the roadside. Upon this the inmates of the houses by the roadside say: 'Why should people be allowed to die on our road?' And they have accordingly detailed the companions of the deceased and compelled them to do purgation. For this reason it often happens that even if an elder brother lies down and dies on the road, the younger brother will refuse to take up his body for burial.
"Again, there are cases of peasants being drowned in a river. The bystanders say: 'Why should -we be made to have anything to do with drowned men?' They accordingly detain the drowned man's companions and compel them to do purgation. For this reason it often happens that even when an elder brother is drowned in a river his younger brother will not render assistance.
"Again, there are cases of people who, when employed on forced labor, cool, their rice by the roadside. Upon this the inmates of the houses by the roadside say: 'Why should people cook rice at their own pleasure on our road and have compelled them to do purgation'
"Again, there are cases when people have applied to others for the loan of pots in which to boil their rice, and the pots have knocked against something and have been upset. Upon this the owner of the pot compels purgation to be made.
"All such practices are habitual among the unenlightened vulgar. Let them now be discontinued without exception, and not be permitted again.
Again, there are cases in which peasants, when they are about to proceed to the capital, apprehensive lest their riding horses should be worn out and unable to go, give two fathoms of cloth and two bundles of hemp to men of the two provinces of Mikaha or Wohari, to hire them to feed their horses. After they have been to the capital and are on their way home, they make them a present of a spade, and then find that the men of Mikaha, etc., have not only failed to feed their horses properly, but have allowed them to die of starvation. In the case of horses of a superior class, they conceive covetous desires, and invent lying tales of their having been stolen, while in the case of mares which become pregnant in their house, they cause purgation to be made, and in the end make a plunder of the beast.
"Such things have come to our ears, We therefore now establish the following regulation:
"Whenever horses are left at livery or in any of the provinces along the highway, let the owner take with him the man whom he engages for this purpose, and make a full statement to the village elder, handing over to the latter at the same time the articles given as remuneration. It is unnecessary for him to make any further payment when he returns home. If he has caused the horse to suffer harm, he should get nothing.
"If any one disobeys this edict, a severe penalty shall be imposed.
"The dues payable to Market Commissioners, for main roads, and to ferrymen, are abolished, and lands are granted instead.
"Beginning with the Home provinces, and embracing the provinces in all four quarters, during the agricultural months," let everyone apply himself early to the cultivation of the rice-land. It is not meet at such time to let them eat dainty food or drink sake. Let faithful messengers be appointed to intimate this to the Home provinces. And let the Kuni no Miyakko of the provinces in every quarter choose good messengers to urge the peasants to work in accordance with the edict."
Autumn, 8th month, 14th day. An edict was issued, saying:
"Going back to the origin of things, we find that it is Heaven and Earth with the male and female principles of nature, which guard the four seasons from mutual confusion. We find, moreover, that it is this Heaven and Earth which produces the ten thousand things. Amongst these ten thousand things Man is the most miraculously gifted. Among the most miraculously gifted beings, the sage takes the position of ruler. Therefore the Sage Rulers, viz., the Emperors, take Heaven as their exemplar in riding the World, and never for a moment dismiss from their breasts the thought of how men shall gain their fit place.
“Now as to the names of the early Princes, the Omi, Muraji, Tomo no Miyakko and Kuni no Miyakko have divided their various Be and allotted them severally to their various titles (or surnames). They afterward took the various Be of the people, and made them reside in the provinces and districts, one mixed up with another. The consequence has been to make father and child bear different surnames, and brothers to be reckoned of distinct families, while husbands and wives have names different from one another. One family is divided into five or split up into six, and both Court and country are therefore filled with contentious suits. No settlement has been come to, and the mutual confusion grows worse and worse. Let the various Be, therefore, beginning with those of the reigning Emperor and including those in the possession of the Omi, Muraji, etc., be, without exception, abolished, and let them become subjects of the State. Those who have become Tonio no Miyakko by borrowing the names of princes, and those who have become Omi or Muraji on the strength of the names of ancestors, may not fully apprehend our purport, and might think, if they heard this announcement without warning, that the names borrowed by their ancestors would become extinct. We therefore make this announcement beforehand, so that they may understand what are Our intentions.
"The children of rulers succeed one another in the government of the Empire, and it is well known that the names of the actual Emperor and of his Imperial ancestors will not be forgotten by the world. But the names of sovereigns are lightly given to rivers and plains, or common people are called by them. This is a truly fearful state of things. The appellations of sovereigns, like the sun and moon, will float afar: the names of those of the Imperial line will last forever, like unto Heaven and Earth. Such being our opinion, we announce as follows: 'Do ye all, from those of the Imperial line down to the Ministers, the Daibu, Omi, Muraji, and Tomo no Miyakko, who do Us service, in short all persons of whatever Uji (One book has ' royal subjects of whatever name'), give ear to what We say with regard to the form of your service, We now abolish the former offices and constitute afresh the hundred bureaus. We shall, moreover, grant grades of rank and confer official dignities.
"Let the local Governors who are now being dispatched, and also the Kuni no Miyakko of the same provinces, give ear to what we say. In regard to the method of administration notified last year to the Court Assembly, let the previous arrangement be followed, and let the rice-lands which are received and measured be granted equally to the people, without distinction of persons. In granting rice-lands the peasants' houses should adjoin the land. Those whose houses lie near the lands must therefore have the preference. In this sense receive Our injunctions.
In regard to commuted taxes they should be collected from males only. "Laborers should be supplied at the rate of one for every fiftyhouses. The boundaries of the provinces should be examined and a description or map prepared, which should be brought here and produced for Our inspection. The names of the provinces and districts will be settled when you come.
"With respect to the places where embankments are to be constructed, or canals dug, and the extent of rice-land to be brought under cultivation, in the various provinces, uniform provision will be made for causing such work to be executed.
"Give ear to and understand these injunctions."
9th month. The Sbotoko Kuromaro, Takamuko no Hakase, was sent to Silla to cause them to send a hostage. Ultimately the tribute from Imna was discontinued.
In this month the Emperor occupied the temporary Palace of Kahadzu. (Some books have "detached Palace.")
In this year the rats of the province of Koshi drew together in troops by night and day, and took their departure toward the East.
(A.D. 647.) 3rd year, Spring, 1st month, 15th day. There was archery at the Court.
On this day Koryo and Silla sent messengers together to offer tribute.
Summer, 4th month, 29th day. An edict was issued as follows:
The Empire was entrusted by the Sun-goddess to her descendants, with the words: 'My children, in their capacity of deities, shall rule it.' (The phrase means to follow the way of the gods, or again to possess in oneself the way of the Gods.) For this reason, this country, since Heaven and Earth began, has been a monarchy. From the time that Our Imperial ancestor first ruled the land, there has been great concord in the Empire, and there has never been any factiousness. In recent times, however, the names, first of the gods, and then of the Emperors, have in some cases been separated (from their proper application) and converted into the Uji of Omi or Muraji. Or they have been separated and made the qualifications of Miyakko, etc. In consequence of this, the minds of the people of the whole country take a strong partisan bias, and conceiving a deep sense of the me and thee, hold firmly each to their names.
Moreover the feeble and incompetent Omi, Muraji, Tomo no Miyakko and Kuni no Miyakko make of such names their family names; and so the names of gods and the names of sovereigns are applied to persons and places in an unauthorized manner, in accordance with the bent of their own feelings. Now, by using the names of gods and the names of sovereigns as bribes, they draw to themselves the slaves of others, and so bring dishonor upon unspotted names. The consequence is that the minds of the people have become unsettled and the government of the country cannot be carried on. The duty has therefore now devolved on Us in Our capacity as Celestial Divinity, to regulate and settle these things. In order to make them understood, and thereby to order the State and to order the people, We shall issue, one after another, a succession of edicts, one earlier, another later, one to-day and another tomorrow. But the people, -who have always trusted in the civilizing influence 104 exercised by the Emperors, and who are used to old customs, will certainly find it hard to wait until these edicts are made. We shall therefore remit to all, from Princes and Ministers down to the common people of all classes, the tax in lieu of service."
In this year Wogohori was pulled down and a Palace built.
The Emperor, having taken up his residence in the Palace of Wogohori, established a Law for Ceremonies, the regulations of which were as follows:
All persons holding official rank must draw up in lines to right and left outside the south gate at the hour of the Tiger, and wait there until the first appearance of the sun. They shall then enter the Court, and having made their obeisances, shall attend in the Hall. Those who come late will not be permitted to enter and take up their attendance. 'When the hour of the Horse arrives, they shall retire when they bear the sound of the bell. The officer whose business it is. to strike the bell shall wear a red apron. The bellstand shall be set up in the Middle Court,
The engineer of the rank of Daisen, Aratawi no Hirafu, Yamato Aya no Atahe, mistakenly dug a canal which he led to Naniha and thereby distressed the people. Upon this someone presented a memorial of remonstrance, and the Emperor made a decree, saying: "We unwisely gave ear to Hirafu's misrepresentations, and so dug this canal to no purpose. It is We who are to blame." That same day the work was discontinued.
Winter, 10th month, 11th day. The Emperor made a progress to the hot baths of Arima. He was accompanied by the Oho-omi of the Right and Left, and by the other Ministers and Daibu.
12th month, last day. The Emperor returned from the hot baths and stayed in the temporary Palace of Muko.
On this day the Palace of the Prince Imperial took fire, to the great marvel of the people of that time.
In this year there were instituted caps of seven kinds and thirteen grades.
The first was called Shoku-kwan. Of this there were two grades, the greater and the lesser. It was made of woven stuff, and embroidered on the borders. The color of the clothing was in both cases dark purple.
The second was called Shu-kwan. Of this there were two grades, the greater and the lesser. It was made of embroidered stuff. The border of the cap and the color of the clothing was the same as for the Shoku.-kwan.
The third was called Shi-kwan. Of this there were two grades, the greater and the lesser. It was made of purple material, with a border of woven stuff. The color of the clothing was light purple.
The fourth was called Kin-kwan. Of this there were two grades, the greater and the lesser. The greater Kin-kwan was made of Dai-haku-sen brocade, and had the cap-border of woven stuff: the lesser Kin-kwan was made of Sho-haku-sen brocade, and bad the cap-border of Dai-haku-sen brocade. The color of the clothing was in both cases true dark red.
The fifth was called Sei-kwan, and was made of blue silk. Of this there were two grades, the greater and the lesser. The greater Sei-kwan had a border of Dai-haku-sen brocade. The color of the clothing was in both cases deep violet.
The sixth was called Kok-kwan, and was made of black silk. Of this there were two grades, the greater and the lesser. The greater Kok-kwan had a border of wheel-pattern brocade. The lesser Kok-kwan had a border of diamondpattern brocade. The color of the clothing was in both cases green.
The seventh was called Kembu (the initial or lowest rank. It was also called Risshin). It was made of black silk and had a border of dark violet.
In addition to the above there were To-kwan, made of black silk. These caps had varnished gauze stretched behind.
Distinctions of rank were indicated by the border and the hair ornaments. The latter were in shape like a cicada. The hair ornaments of the grades from the Lesser Kin-kwan upward were of a combination of gold and silver: the hair ornaments of the Greater and Lesser Sei-kwan were made of silver: the hair ornaments of the Greater and Lesser Kokkwan were made of copper. The Kembu caps had no hair ornaments.
These caps were worn at Grand Assemblies, when foreign guests were entertained, and at the (Buddhist) maigre feasts of the fourth month and seventh month.
Silla sent Kim Chhyun-chhyu, a Superior Minister, of the rank of Greater Ason, and others to accompany the Hakase, Takamuko no Kuromaro, of Shotoko rank, and Oshikuma, Nakatomi no Muraji, of middle Shosen rank, and bring a present to the Emperor of a peacock and a parrot. Chhyunchhyu was made a hostage. He was a handsome man, who talked and smiled agreeably.
The Nutari barrier was constructed, and a barrier-settlement established. Old men talked to one another, saying: "The migration of the rats toward the East some years ago prefigured the making of this barrier."
(A.D. 648.) 4th year. Spring, 1st month, 1st day. The ceremony of New Year's congratulations took place.
In the evening the Emperor proceeded to the Palace of Toyosaki in Naniha.
2nd month, 1st day. Student priests were sent to Korea.
8th day. The Oho-omi Abe Invited the four classes to the Temple of Shitenoji, where, having brought in four images of Buddha, lie bad them enshrined within the pagoda. He constructed a figure of the wondrous Vulture Mountain, which he made by piling up drums on one another.
Summer, 4th month, 1st day. The old caps were discontinued. The Oho-omi of the Left and Right, however, continued to wear the old caps.
This year Silla sent envoys bearing tribute.
The barrier of Ihabune was put to rights as a precaution against the Yemisbi. Eventually subjects from the provinces of Koshi and Shinano were selected, and a barrier-settlement for the first time established.
5th year. Spring, 1st month, 1st day. The New Year's congratulations took place.
2nd month. Nineteen cap grades were instituted, as follows:
First - Dai-shiki (greater woven-stuff)
Second - Sbc-shiki (lesser woven-stuff)
Third - Dai-shu (greater embroidery)
Fourth - Sho-shu, (lesser embroidery)
Fifth - Dai-shi (greater purple)
Sixth - Sho-shi (lesser purple)
Seven - th Upper Dai-kwa (greater flower)
Eighth - Lower Dai-kwa (greater flower)
Ninth - Upper Sho-kwa (lesser flower)
Tenth - Lower Sho-kwa (lesser flower)
Eleventh - Upper Dai-sen (greater mountain)
Twelfth - Lower Dai-sen (greater mountain)
Thirteenth - Upper Sho-en (lesser mountain)
Fourteenth - Lower Sho-sen (lesser mountain)
Fifteenth - Upper Dai-otsu
Sixteenth - Lower Dai-otsu
Seventeenth - Upper Sho-otsu
Eighteenth - Lower Sbo-otsu
Nineteenth - Risshin (Promotion or advancement)
In this month an order was given to the Hakase, Takamuko no Kuromaro, and the Buddhist Priest Bin to establish Eight Departments of State and one hundred bureaus.
3rd month, 17th day. Abe no Oho-omi died. The Emperor proceeded to the Shujaku gate, where be raised up lamentations for him and showed much emotion. The Empress Dowager, the Prince Imperial, and the other Princes, together with the Ministers of every rank, all, following his example, mourned and lamented.
24th day. Hiuga, Soga no Omi (styled Musashi) slandered the Oho-omi Kurayamada to the Prince Imperial, saying: "Maro, thy servant's elder brother by a different mother, is watching the opportunity of the Prince Imperial making an excursion to the seaside, in order to do him a mischief. He will ere long commit treason." The Prince Imperial believed this. The Emperor sent Ohotomo no Komano Muraji, Alikuni no Maro no Kimi, and Hodzumi no Kurafu no Omi to the Obo-omi, Kurayamada no Maro, and questioned him as to the truth of the charge of treason. The Oho-omi answered and said: "I will have a personal interview with the Emperor, and shall then answer to the charge brought against me."
The Emperor again sent Mikuni no Maro no Kimi and Hodzumi, Kurafu no Omi, to investigate the circumstances of the treason. The Oho-omi, Maro , again answered as before. The Emperor was therefore about to raise an armed force and surround therewith the Oho-onii's house, when the Oho-omi, taking with him his two sons, Hoshi and Akagoma (also called Mawosu), fled by way of Chinu toward the boundary of the province of Yamato. Before this, Koshi, the Oho-omi's eldest son, was already staying in Yamato, where he was building the Temple.
(This means that he was staying in the Yamada house.) Now being suddenly apprised that his father was coming thither in flight, he went out to meet him at the great Tsuki tree in Imaki. Having approached, he took the lead and entered the Temple. Then he looked back to the Oho-omi and said: "Koshi desires to advance straight on in person, and oppose the army which is coming." But the Oho-omi would not allow it. That night Koshi conceived the idea of burning the Palace (the Palace of Woharida is meant), and went on assembling troops.
25th day. The Oho-omi addressed his eldest son Koshi, saying: "Dost thou love thy life?" Koshi answered and said: "I love it not." The Oho-omi thereupon harangued the priests of the Yamada Temple, his eldest son Koshi and some tens of other persons, saying: "Shall one who is in the position of vassal contrive treason against his Lord? Shall the duty of a son to a father be brought to nothing? This temple was originally built, not for me personally, but under a vow for the sake of the Emperor. I have now been slandered by Musashi, and I fear that I shall. be unjustly put to death. With so near a prospect of the yellow springs, I would withdraw from life still cherishing fidelity in my bosom, and the object of my coming to this Temple is that my last moments may be made easier."
When a one speaking, he opened the door of the Buddha Hall and uttered a vow, saying: "In all future births and existences, let me not have resentment against my sovereign!" When he had made this vow, he strangled himself and died. His wife and children, to the number of eight persons, sacrificed themselves with him.
On this day, Oho-tomo no Koma no Muraji and Soga no Iliuga no Omi were sent as Generals in command of a body of troops to pursue the Oho-omi. General Ohotomo no Muraji and his colleague bad gone as far as Kuroyama when Mu, Hashi no Muraji, and Omimaro, Uneme no Omi, came running from the Yamada Temple, and brought information that the Obo-omi Soga, with his three sons and one daughter, had already committed suicide together by strangulation. The Generals therefore returned from Tajihi no Saka.
26th day. The wife, children, and personal attendants of the Oho-omi Yamada, who committed suicide by strangulation, were many. Kurafu, Hodzumi no Omi, arrested in a body the Oho-omi's people, viz.: Tsukushi, Taguchi no Omi, and others, placed cangues round their necks, and tied their hands behind their backs. That night, Maro, Ki no Omi, Hiuga, Soga no Omi, and Kurafu, Hodzumi no Omi, having surrounded the Temple with an armed force, called Shiho, Mononobe no Futauta no Miyakko, and ordered him to cut off the Obo-omi's head. Upon this Futsuta no Shiho drew his sword, raised up the body on its point, yelled and reviled, and then cut it off.
30th day. There were executed, as implicated with the Oho-omi, Soga no Yamada, Tsukushi, Taguchi no Omi, Miminashi no D6toko, Takada no Sikowo Nukadabe no Yumasu no Muraji, Hada no Adera and others, fourteen persons in all. Nine were strangled, and fifteen banished.
In this month, messengers were sent to take over the property of the Oho-omi, Yamada. Among his property was a beautiful book with the inscription, "Book belonging to the Prince Imperial," and a valuable object inscribed "Property of the Prince Imperial." When the messengers returned and reported the circumstances of their having taken over the property, the Prince Imperial recognized for the first time that the heart of the Oho-omi had remained pure and unspotted. He was seized with shame and remorse for the past, and bewailed his fate incessantly. Hiuga no Orai was accordingly appointed Viceroy of Tsukushi. The people of the time said to one another, "Is not this a disguised banishment?"
When Sogo no Miyakko hime, consort of the Prince Imperial, beard that her father the Obo-omi had been decapitated by Shiho, she took it deeply to heart and grieved bitterly. She detested hearing Shiho's name mentioned, and so her personal attendants, whenever they had occasion to speak of salt (shiho), altered the word and called it Kitashi. At last Miyakko hime died of a broken heart. When the Prince Imperial heard that she had passed away, he was grieved and deeply shocked, and bewailed her loss exceedingly. Upon this Mitsu, Nunaka Kahara no Fubito, came forward and presented verses of poety as follows:
On a mountain stream
Two mandarin-ducks there be,
Well matched together:
But the wife who was a like mate for me
Who is it that has taken away?
This was the first verse.
Though on every tree
The flowers are blooming,
How can it be that
My darling wife
Does not blossom again?
This was the second verse.
The Prince Imperial, with a sigh of deep despair, praised the verses, saying: "How beautiful! How pathetic! "So he gave him his lute and made him sing them. He also presented him with four hiki of silk, twenty tan of cloth, and two bags of floss silk.
Summer, 4th month, 20th day. Kose no Tokodako no Omi, of the Shoshi rank, was granted the rank of Daishi, and was made Oho-omi of the Left.
Ohotomo no 'Nagatoko no Muraji (styled Numakahi) of Shashi rank, was granted the rank of Daishi, and was made Obo-omi of the Right.
5th month, 1st day. Shikofu, Miwa no Kimi, of Lower Sh6kwa rank, Tsunomaro, Harahibe, no Muraji 137 of Upper Daisen rank, and others were sent to Silla.
This year, the Queen of Silla sent Kim Ta-sya, Sa-son of Sa-tok-pu, as hostage. He had a suite of thirty persons: One Buddhist priest, two Si-rang, one Assistant, one Usher, five Chung-kek, ten Artists, one Interpreter, and sixteen servants of various kinds - in all thirty-seven persons.
(A.D. 650.) Hakuchi,111 1st year, Spring, 1st month, 1st day. The Imperial chariot proceeded to the Palace of Ajifu, where the Emperor viewed the ceremonies of the New Year's congratulations.
On this day the Imperial chariot returned to the Palace.
2nd month, 9th day. Shikofu, Kusakabe no Muraji, Governor of the Province of Anato, presented to the Emperor a white pheasant, saying: "Nihe, a relation of Obito, the Kuni no Miyakko, caught it on the 9th day of the first month on Mount Wonoyama." Upon this inquiry was made of the Lords of Pokcho, who said: "In the eleventh year of Yung-p'ing in the reign of Ming Ti of the Later Han Dynasty, white pheasants were seen in a certain place." Further inquiry was made of the Buddhist priests, who answered and said: “With our ears we have not heard, nor with our eyes have we seen such. May it please Your Majesty to order a general amnesty; and so give joy to the hearts of the people."
The Priest Doto said: "At one time Korye desired to build a Buddhist temple. There was no place which was not examined for this purpose. Then in a certain place a white deer was seen quietly moving, and eventually a temple was built on this spot. It was called the Temple of the Park of the White Deer, and the practise of the Buddhist Law was there permanently established. Again, a white sparrow was seen at the farmstead of a certain temple. The people of the country all said that it was a good omen. Moreover, envoys sent to Great Thang brought back a dead crow with three legs. The people of the country again said that this was a good omen. Though these things are trifles, yet they are deemed of favorable omen. Much more is this so in the case of a white pheasant."
The Priest Bin said: "This is to be deemed a lucky omen, and it may reasonably be accounted a rare object. I have respectfully heard that when a Ruler extends his influence to all four quarters, then will white pheasants be seen. They appear, moreover, when a Ruler's sacrifices are not in mutual disaccord, and when his banquets and costumes are in due measure. Again, when a Ruler is of frugal habits, white pheasants are made to come forth on the hills. Again, they appear when the Ruler is sage and humane. In the time of the Emperor Ch'eng Wang of the Chou Dynasty, the Yueh-shang family brought and presented to the Emperor a white pheasant, saying: 'We were told by the old men of our country: "What a long time it has been since there have been any exceptional storms or long-continued rains, and that the great rivers and the sea have not surged up over the land! Three years have now elapsed. We think that in the Central Land there is a Sage. Would it not be well to go and pay your respects at his Court?" We have therefore come, having tripled our interpreters.' Again, in the first year of Hien-ning in the reign of Wu-ti of the Tsin Dynasty, one was seen in the Sung-tsze. This is accordingly a favorable omen. A general amnesty ought to be granted."
Upon this the white pheasant was let loose in the garden.
15th day. The array of guards at Court was like that on the occasion of a New Year's reception. The Oho-omi of the Right and Left and all the functionaries formed four lines outside of the purple gate. Ihimushi, Ahata no Omi, and three others were made to take the pheasant's litter and move off ahead, while the Oho-omi of the Right and Left at the head of all the functionaries, and Phung-chyang, Lord of Pekche, his younger brother Se-syong, Chhyung-seung, the physician to the King of Koryo, by name Mo-chhi, the scholar attached to the Court of Silla, and others, advanced into the Central Court. These four men, viz., Maro, Mikuni no Kimi, Takami, Wina no Kimi, Mikaho, Miwa no Kimi, and Maro Kida, Ki no Omi, taking up the pheasant's litter in turn, advanced in front of the Hall. Then the Oho-oini of the Right and Left approached and held the litter by the forward end. The Prince of Ise, Maro, Alikuni no Kimi, and Woguso, Kura no Omi, took hold of the hinder end of the litter and placed it before the Imperial throne.
The Emperor straightway called the Prince Imperial, and they took it and examined it together. The Prince Imperial having retired, made repeated obeisances, and caused the Oho-omi Kose to offer a congratulatory address, saying: "The Ministers and functionaries offer their congratulations. Inasmuch as Your Majesty governs the Empire with serene virtue, there is here a white pheasant, produced in the western region. This is a sign that Your Majesty will continue for a thousand autumns and ten thousand years peacefully to govern the Greater-eight-islands of the four quarters. It is the prayer of the Ministers, functionaries, and people that they may serve Your Majesty with the utmost zeal and fidelity."
Having finished this congratulatory speech, he made repeated obeisances. The Emperor said:
"When a sage Ruler appears in the world and rules the Empire, Heaven is responsive to him, and manifests favorable omens. In ancient times, during the reign of Cheng-wang of the Chou Dynasty, a ruler of the Western land, and again in the time of Ming Ti of the Han Dynasty, white pheasants were seen. In this our Land of Japan, during the reign of the Emperor Homuda,"' a white crow made its nest in the Palace. In the time of the Emperor Oho-sazaki, a Dragon-horse appeared in the West.'" This shows that from ancient times until now, there have been many cases of auspicious omens appearing in response to virtuous rulers. What we call phoenixes, unicorns, white pheasants, white crows, and such like birds and beasts, even including herbs and trees, in short all things having the property of significant response, are favorable omens and auspicious signs produced by Heaven and Earth. Now that wise and enlightened sovereigns should obtain such auspicious omens is meet and proper. But why should We, who are so empty and shallow, have this good fortune? It is no doubt wholly due to our Assistants, the Ministers, Omi, Muraji, Tomo no Miyakko and Kuni no Miyakko, each of whom, with the utmost loyalty, conforms to the regulations that are made. For this reason, let all, from the Ministers down to the functionaries ' with pure hearts reverence the gods of Heaven and Earth, and one and all accepting the glad omen, make the Empire to flourish."
Again he commanded, saying:
“The provinces and districts in the four quarters having been placed in our charge by Heaven, We exercise supreme rule over the Empire. -Now in the province of Anato, ruled over by Our divine ancestors, this auspicious omen has appeared. For this reason We proclaim a general amnesty throughout the Empire, and begin a new year-period, to be called Haku-chi. Moreover we prohibit the flying of falcons within the limits of the province of Anato."
Presents were made to the Ministers, Daibu and officials of lower rank down to the clerks, varying in value according to their rank. Hereupon the local Governor, Shikofu, Kusa-kabe no Muraji, was commended and granted the rank of Daiseni together with liberal presents. The commuted taxes and corvies of Anato were remitted for three years.
Summer, 4th month. Silla sent Envoys to offer tribute.
One book says: “In the reign of this Emperor the three countries of Koryo, Pekche and Silla sent envoys bearing tribute every year."
Winter, 10th month. In respect of the tombs which had been demolished in order to include the ground in a site for a Palace, and of the people who had been made to remove for the same purpose, presents were given, varying in value. This having been done, the chief builder, Hirafu Aratawi no Atabe, was sent to set up the boundary-posts of the Palace.
In this month the construction was begun of an embroidery figure of Buddha sixteen feet in height with its attendant Bosatsu, and of figures of beings of the eight classes - forty-six figures in all.
In this year, Ohoguchi, Aya no Yamaguchi no Atahe, in obedience to an Imperial order, carved one thousand images of Buddha.
(A.D. 651.) Winter, 12th month, last day. More than 2100 priests and nuns were invited to the Palace of Ajifu, and made to read the Issaikyo.
That night over 2700 lights were lit in the courtyard of the Palace, and there were caused to be read the Antaku and Dosoku Sutras, etc. Upon this, the Emperor removed his residence from Oho-gohori to the new Palace. It received the name of the Palace of Naniha no Nagara no Toyosaki.
This year the Silla tribute-envoys, Chi-man, of Sa-son rank, and his companions anchored at Tsukushi, wearing garments of the Thang country. The Government, disgusted at this wanton change of habit, reproved them and drove them back again. At this time Kose no Oho-omi addressed the Emperor, saying: “If we do not give a blow to Silla at this present time, we shall certainly have to regret it afterward. Now as to the manner of giving a blow to Silla, we can do so without raising a sword. From the port of Naniha as far as Tsukushi let the surface of the sea be covered with ships, one touching another. Then if Silla be summoned and called to an account for her offenses, it will be easy for us to gain our object."
(A.D. 652.) 3rd year, Spring, 1st month, ist day. When the New Year's ceremonies were over, the Imperial chariot proceeded to the Palace of Oho-gohori.
20th day. The explanations of the Sutras were discontinued. From this day forward rain began to fall continually, lasting for nine days. It demolished buildings, and destroyed the young rice-plants in the fields. Many men, horses, and oxen were drowned.
In this month the registers of population were prepared. Fifty houses were made a township, and for each township there was appointed an elder. The senior member of the family was always made the head of the household. The houses were all associated in groups of five for mutual protection, with one elder to supervise them one with another.
Autumn, 9th month. The building of the Palace was completed. It is impossible adequately to describe the appearance of the Palace Halls.
Winter, 12th month, last day. The priests and nuns of the Empire were invited to the interior of the Palace and entertained with meager fare. Plentiful alms were given, and lights kindled.
(A.D. 653.) Autumn, 7th month. Takada no Nemaro and his colleagues, the Ambassadors sent to Great Thang, were drowned by the sinking of their ship in the Gate 1160 of Takashima, off the coast of Satsuma. Only five men, who lashed themselves to a plank, floated ashore on the island of Takashima. They knew not what to do, until one of the five, named Kadobe no Kogane, gathered bamboos and made of them a raft, with which they anchored at the island of Shitoji-shima These five men passed six days and six nights without any food whatever. Thereupon Kogane was complimented by the Emperor, advanced in rank, and presents given him.
This year the Prince Imperial petitioned the Emperor, saying: "I wish the Imperial residence were removed to the Yamato capital." The Emperor refused to grant his request. Upon this the Prince Imperial took with him the Empress Dowager, the Empress Hashibito, and the younger Imperial Princes, and went to live in the temporary Palace of Asuka no Kahabe in Yamato. At this time the Ministers and Daibu, with the various functionaries, all followed and changed their residence. The Emperor resented this, and wished to cast away the national Dignity. He bad a palace built in Yamazaki and sent a song to th~ Empress Hashibito, saying:
"The pony which I keep,
I put shackles on
And led it not out:
Can anyone have seen
The pony which I keep?"
5th year, Spring, 1st month, 1st day. In the night the rats migrated toward the Yamato capitai.
Winter, 10th month, 1st day. The Prince Imperial, being informed that the Emperor bad taken ill, proceeded to the Naniha Palace with the Empress Dowager, the Empress Hashibito, and also accompanied by the younger Imperial Princes and Ministers.
10th day. The Emperor died in the State Bedchamber. He was temporarily interred in the southern courtyard. Dotoko, Mozu no Hashi no Muraji, of Upper Shosen rank, superintended the business of the Palace of Temporary Interment.
12th month, 8th day. He was buried in the misasagi of Shinaga at Ohosaka.
On this day, the Prince Imperial, accompanied by the Empress Dowager, changed his residence to the Temporary Palace of Kahabe in Yamato. Old people said: "The migration of the rats to the Yamato capital was an omen of the transference of the capital thither."
In this year, Koryo, Pekche and Silla sent ambassadors of condolence.
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