This article was posted by CrystalWind.ca.
Gizmos and Gear for the Modern Witch
Category: Tools of the Craft
Setting up an altar, replete with special tools and meaningful items can set the stage for the practice of many rituals, spells and magick. There are so many accessories available to the Modern Witch today, creating sacred space can be an enjoyable and uniquely personal process.
Altar Table - An altar table is a sacred, personal space for a pagan, Wiccan or spiritualist. Altar Tables can be made of any substance you choose, and can be indoors or outside depending on the purpose you desire. Some choose to have several altar tables devoted to particular energies, goddesses or gods, or for different rituals that are currently ongoing. In the tradition of Wicca, altar tables are of particular importance. Since many Neo-Pagan traditions currently worship in the home of a member of the fellowship, the altar table may be a permanent part of the home or a portable set of items set on a surface which will be consecrated and released at each event. Any surface can be used for altar tables although some traditions prefer a particular type of wood, stone, or other natural material.
Altar Tile - Altar tiles are often used as representations of one’s faith. Altar tiles can be placed on altars as symbols and outward meanings for the individual's sacred space. Altar tiles can also be used in rituals and spells in a variety of methods although one more common use is as a vessel to hold energy this includes spirits. Ancient texts often speak of practitioners of the craft using altar tiles to trap and hold spirits whether it be for the actual ritual in progress or to entrap the spirit or demon's energies within the altar tile itself permanently.
Altar Cloths - An altar cloth is used by magicians, wiccans, witches, and other practitioners of the spiritual path for one or more of several reasons but none more so then to protect their altars from damage. Some individuals may choose altar cloths that are of use in the application of magic (or magick) for their color or symbolism in relation to the ritual work they are performing, or for the energy, god or goddess for which the altar is dedicated.
Sarongs - Sarongs can be used in several ways with one of them being as a larger sized altar cloth to be spread over the top of the altar. Another use for a sarong is as a wrap or covering around the waist that can be used as a fashion statement with a bikini at the beach. Sarongs can also be hung on walls and doors instead of tapestries.
Tapestries - Tapestries are used for a number of purposes but none more so then decoration. Many individuals within Wicca and the craft in general use tapestries to decorate and symbolize their ritual spaces and altars. These tapestries can represent either an extension visual image of the individual or as a representation of their deity or higher power.
Altar Bells – Altar bells are generally a small metal hand bell used to clear sacred space, and punctuate parts of ritual or spellwork. Altar Bells are associated with the element of air. Ancients used altar bells to mark Beginnings and Endings, Purifications, Energizing and Cleansing of an Area for Ritual Use, Changing and Enhancing Awareness and for Calling and invoking the Spirits and particular energies
Athame - An athame is a witch’s ceremonial knife. In many traditions the athame is black handled, with a double sided blade around 9 inches long. Some covens and high priest(esses) have a white handled decorative ceremonial athame and a black handled secondary athame for cutting fruit and herbs, carving symbols etc, and each member has their own black handled athame. The reason for this is because your athame is not meant to be used as a weapon even if it is a mundane task such as herb cutting. In some traditions this is reversed and the black handled athame is ceremonial and the white handled work knife is known as a Boline.
Boline - Many traditions hold that the boline is a work knife for cutting and preparing items used including herbs fruit etc, while the athame is to only be used to cut air and the wedding cake at a handfasting (witches wedding). It also represents the male element in some ceremonies. It functions similar to a wand as a means of channeling energy and is often used for invoking and banishing elements, entities and other energies.
Knives - Hunting knives and pocket knives can serve a multitude of different purposes and are very handy to carry around as utility blades. Hunting and pocket knives can also be used as substitutes to the traditional design athame since regular knives all have sharpened pointed blades that can still represent the male aspect in a ritual or rite. Pocket knives are also easily portable and conspicuous making them excellent if one needs to travel to their rituals or ceremonies.
Swords - Although considered to be too large to be used as a suitable substitute for an athame, swords can still serve a purpose in rituals and ceremonies just like in many other cultures. Swords can be used to bless and promote initiates within a coven by placing the tip of the sword blade on each shoulder (just one example) or a sword can be held in both hands and held out towards the altar while kneeing as an offering to a god or goddess. Swords also make excellent decorative and meaningful purposes if put on display near or on your altar when not in use.
Besom Broom - Traditionally the besom broom has been and sometimes is continued to be used within Wiccan weddings where the couple jumps over the broom during the ceremony. This represents the couple "crossing the threshold" into homes to begin their new union together. This besom broom jumping also represents fertility and domestic harmony and longevity. Magically, a besom is used for a variety of purposes, but more generally they are used to purify and protect. In rituals the besom is used to cleanse sacred space before magick is performed by visually sweeping away negative energies and astral build up.
Cast Iron Cauldron - In Wicca a cast iron cauldron symbolizes the womb of the Goddess and can also represent rebirth and purification through fire. The cast iron cauldron is considered a sacred vessel to the Goddess and so many individuals within the craft favor using it for this purpose. In Celtic influenced Wicca the cauldron represents the goddess Cerridwen and Celtic legend also tells of a cauldron that was useful to warring armies: dead warriors could be put into the cauldron and would be returned to life, save that they lacked the power of speech. It was suspected that they lacked souls. These warriors could go back into battle until they were killed again. Cast iron cauldrons are excellent for cooking over camp fires or fire places and for centuries humans have used them to cook anything from stews and soups, to meat and beans. Cast iron cauldrons can also be used as incense burners when granular or powder incense is burned within the cauldron. If charcoal and incense are placed within a cast iron cauldron and lit the incense will begin to burn and smoke and there is no fear of the heat or fire breaking loose out of the cauldron as the cast iron holds and absorbs the heat extremely well leaving one with a pleasant burning incense for quite some time until it burns out.
Chalice - The chalice is one of the most intimate tools used in Wiccan practice. The symbolic meanings of the chalice include the Goddess, the womb, water, hope and promise. In Wicca a chalice, as a feminine principle, is often used in combination with the Athame (ceremonial black-handled knife), as male principle. Combining the two evokes the act of procreation, as a symbol of universal creativity. This is a symbol of the Great Rite in Wiccan rituals. A chalice is also used in the Small Rite. A chalice is a symbol of the element of water, a feminine element representing intuition, gestation, psychic ability, and the subconscious. The Cup also stands in as a symbol of the Goddess, of the womb, and the female generative organs. The chalice is sometimes interchangeable with the cauldron.
Mortar and Pestle - A mortar is a bowl shaped container made of a hard wood, marble, pottery, or stone. The pestle is a bat shaped tool that is used to grind inside the mortar (bowl) and pulverize grains, herbs, and other food substances as well as medicines. In Wicca and other practices a mortar and pestle is an invaluable tool as it can crush and grind your herbs and other ingredients for rituals and spells if they are needed in a finer form.
Offering Bowl - Offering bowls are popular in Wicca and other neo pagan traditions as they hold offerings to an individual's chosen god or goddess. Offering bowls are often placed on the center of the altar and can be filled with many different items all depending on what the individual deems worthy as an offering to their deity. Offerings can be anything from bread, wine, purified water to herbs, gemstones, coins, and various things from Nature. Offering bowls can also be used as scrying bowls as many offering bowls are quite capable of holding water to be used as a divination tool. Offering bowls come in a wide variety of materials including wood, bronze, brass, crystal, glass, and more.
Wand - Wands are a very popular item in Wicca and other aspects of the craft. Wands allow the transfer of magical energy from the individual who is wielding it through the wand and out into the open. Wands can be a powerful instrument if used properly and can be used in any ceremony, ritual, or spell. Wands represent the element of air and are represented as a male aspect within Wicca. Wands come in many different shapes and sizes as well as being made from a wide variety of materials. The most common form of wand and seemingly preferred by individuals is wands made from wood as wood can absorb and store energies fairly easily.
Ritual Box & Ritual Chest - Ritual boxes and ritual chests are used in Wicca, witchcraft, and other neo pagan faiths mainly as storage units for an individual’s tools, ingredients, and components they use for their craft. Having items stored safely in ritual boxes and ritual chests will prevent damage to them and can also contain the energies of the items within the item itself from "leaking out". Many people choose one box per specific item or items such as a ritual box only for a tarot card deck or a ritual chest only for all their altar tools when not in use. Either way ritual boxes or ritual chests make a very important addition to your daily practices.
Spell Kits & Ritual Kits - Spell and ritual kits are excellent ways to perform a spell or ritual quickly and easily. Typically within spell and ritual kits come all the tools you need to perform that specific spell or ritual. A spell and ritual kit can contain literally any kind of items that can be used including candles, amulets, herbs, charcoal, incense, and more. Spell and ritual kits can be highly effective if they are used properly and are a great tool for beginners of the craft.
Blank Book of Shadows - A Book of Shadows is the name used for a blank book that contains magical and religious texts in the religion of Wicca and certain other neopagan witchcraft traditions. Typically, a Book of Shadows contains the core rituals, magical practices, ethics and philosophy of Wicca within it, and more often a list of the witch's personal spells. Blank book of shadows are perfect start up tools for anyone just entering the craft as once you find a book of shadows that suits your specific tastes you can draw and write all your spells, rituals, and thoughts down into one tomb. Book of shadows are considered a backbone to anyone practicing witchcraft and Wicca and every book of shadows is considered sacred and holds a piece of the practioner's own energy within its pages.
Parchment - Parchment has been used for thousands of years as a means to write important documents. Traditionally parchment was made from sheep skin as when it is dried and cured will last for many decades if care for properly and not exposed to the elements. Parchment is also used in many handmade book of shadows as parchment absorbs and holds ink very well making the writing bolder and long lasting. Parchment can also hold the energy from ritual inks there by making one's ritual or spell more effective.
Ritual Pens - Quill and fine point pens are excellent tools to write your spells and rituals down with. The pen is the instrument that transcribes your written intentions down on paper and is also the tool that enables the channeling of energy from one's hand to the paper that makes it possible to record a spell or ritual.
Ritual Inks - Ritual inks can be used to help a practitioner charge spells. By using ritual ink and writing one's intentions on parchment the ink can bind to the parchment there by charging the actual words used for the spell or ritual. Ritual inks come in different colors and makes but there is commonly a ritual ink for each specific intent or spell.
Ritual oils – Ritual oils serve multiple purposes within Wicca and Witchcraft. The most common use for ritual oils is to rub them on ritual candles to enhance the potency of spells and rituals. Ritual oils can also be used for other purposes such being rubbed onto various ritual objects, mojo bags, spell kits, and other ritual tools. Ritual oils can also be placed in oil warmers, and once the oils are heated, they release a steady pleasant aroma for as long as they are heated.
Oil warmers are normally a decorative base where a dish is placed on top. Scented oils are placed within this dish and when heated, it releases a steady stream of the oil's scent for as long as it is burning. Oil warmers normally use tea light candles as their heating source, where the flame from the candle slowly and evenly warms the oils from underneath the dish.
Staffs - Within Wicca and Neo Paganism, staffs are often used as a symbol of power and magical prominence. They are traditional hand carved from wood, though any material can be used, since woods represents the Earth and Nature, many wiccans and pagans prefer this material. Staffs are also used as a focal point for energy within rituals and spells on much more grandeur scale then small rituals or spells. Normally staffs are common for large community rituals where the individual wielding the staff can have more energy drawn to them then another similar ritual item that is used, the wand. Staffs tend to become very personal items, and much like the wand or athame, they can often absorb their users energies have tendencies of becoming "alive".
Ritual Candles - Ritual candles can be great for quick and easy spells and should always be a part of your ritual supplies.
- 7 Day Jar Candles: 7 day jar candles can be used as a compliment with your other ritual tools or it can be used as a standalone tool for a single ritual or spell. 7 day jar candles do come in various different flavors and intents such as for love, protection, energy release, astral travel, and many others.
- Figure Candles: Figure candles can be used for a number of different spells and rituals and depending on your intentions they can be used to bring protection, good health, prosperity, and luck to an individual or they can be meant to bring bad luck, failing health, and negative energies to an individual.
- Ritual Jar Candles: Ritual jar candles can be used as a compliment with your other ritual tools or it can be used as a standalone tool for a single ritual or spell. Ritual jar candles do come in various different flavors and intents such as for love, protection, energy release, astral travel, and many others.
- Ritual Pillar Candles: Ritual Pillar candles can be very powerful candles to use in rituals and spells because the energies they contain are substantial. Ritual pillar candles come already charged for a specific intent and purpose and do not need to be energized beforehand.
- Ritual Taper Candles: Ritual taper candles can be used as a compliment with your other ritual tools or it can be used as a standalone tool for a single ritual or spell. Ritual taper candles do come in various different flavors and intents such as for love, protection, energy release, astral travel, and many others.
Altar Candles - Altar candles are candles set on or near altars for religious ceremonies. Various denominations have regulations or traditions regarding the number and type of candles used, and when they are lit or extinguished during the services. Altar candles may sit directly on the altar or be placed in tall stands to the side of or behind the altar. For safety, altar candles are secured in some type of candle holder which may be simple or elaborate. To prevent wax from dripping, candles are often topped by a "candle follower", a short tube made of brass, glass or some other non-flammable material.
Chime Candles - Chime candles are very popular within Wicca and witchcraft for their small size making them some of the best candles to use on an altar or sacred space. Chime candles come in a variety of colors for different intentions within rituals and spells and being so popular, there are many different stylized candle holders made specifically for chime candles.
Jar Candles - Jar candles can be a very handy item to have around not only for your rituals and spells but for emergencies as well. Jar candles allow the candle itself to rest safely on a service with less fear of tipping over. Jar Candles also are self contained keeping the wax of the candle inside the glass jar. Jar candles can also be a powerful candle to use in a ritual or spell because there is more of a chance for the energy of a spell or ritual to be contained within the jar along with the candle.
Pillar Candles - Pillar candles are large and thick candles that resemble their namesake being pillar like in their shape. Pillar candles are not as popular as chime, taper, or votive candles because of their larger size and they take up more room. Pillar candles however can be very powerful candles to use in rituals and spells because not only would they hold much more energy but a pillar candle will burn longer releasing that energy placed within the candle for a longer duration possibly making the individual's spells and rituals more powerful and effective.
Taper Candles - Taper candles are one of the most common candles for a reason. Taper candles do not take up much space on an altar or practically anywhere else you put them and they make for quick candle magic spells for their ease at being able to anoint, inscribe, and charge them. Each color of a taper candle can represent a different intent for spells and rituals such as pink for love, black for protection, white for purification and healing, etc.
Tea Light Candles - Tea light candles are the most common but useful of candles. Being small and not taking up much space, tea light candles can be used for decorative, ritual, or emergency purposes. Tea lights are also preferred by the fact that they are a standalone candle in that they simply need a sturdy plate or holder underneath them to prevent wax from getting on furniture and the floor.
Votive Candles - Votive candles are another popular type of candle due to their small and squat size. Most votive candles can burn just as long if not longer then tapers and chime candles and they can easily fit within many different candle holders. Votive Candles come in many different colors and depending on the intentions of the practitioner are very suitable for quick and easy spell work and rituals.
For wiccans, pagans, and those who practice witchcraft and the occult, burning incense is a common practice. The scents and properties made from the incense can greatly enhance rituals and spells. The smoke from the incense is believed to make the energies that go into rituals and spells augmented, and many who practice the craft find it easier to enter a meditative state while burning incense because of its therapeutic and calming qualities.
Incense is composed of aromatic biotic materials. It releases fragrant smoke when burned. The term incense refers to the substance itself, rather than to the odor that it produces. Recent studies conducted by the Federal Health Association affirms the fact that incense is not in any way linked to types of cancer in relation with the respiratory system. Many religious ceremonies and spiritual purification rites employ incense, a practice that persists to this day. Incense is also used in medicine and for its aesthetic value. The forms taken by incense have changed with advances in technology, differences in the underlying culture, and diversity in the reasons for burning it.
Granular Incense - Granular incense is the most pure form of incense one can get and is popular within the craft because of this reason as it has been unprocessed and untreated. Granular incense often resembles fine granules such as mini pebbles or stones and they are best to be burned by lighting charcoal and the granular incense together within a sturdy incense burner. Many individuals prefer cauldrons when burning granular incense though there are many different incense burners that are specifically tailored towards granular incense as well. Granular incense typically offers the strongest scent and is considered by many the most potent form of incense one can obtain.
Powder Incense - Powder incense is incense that comes in a very fine powder and much like granular incense is meant to be burn with charcoal. Incense powder is stronger and longer lasting then cone or stick incense and is a popular alternative to granular incense. Powder incense can be burned in cauldrons or in incense burners that also burn granular incense.
Incense diffusers are decorative pieces where incense cones and granular incense can be placed inside of them, lit, and once covered; the smoke from the incense is released from various outlets within the incense diffuser.
Smudge sticks are a bundle of dried herbs, the most common one is white sage. Other herbs or plants are used or added and the leaves are usually bound with string in a small bundle and dried. They have a strong pleasant aroma when burnt. Smudge sticks are used for the purpose of cleansing. You can also use a charcoal underneath a smude stick which will provide even more smoke.
Herbal spell mixes can be used for a variety of different purposes. Here are some examples: as an incense herbal spell mix can be burned similar to granular incense. If used as a ritual bath, herbal spell mix can be sprinkled directly into your bath water or placed into a velveteen bag and then soaked along with you. If used for charm and mojo bags, place the herbal mix into the bag with your other ingredients.
Gemstones in Wicca and witchcraft often are used as ritual tools because of the energy they contain within themselves. When gemstones are used properly they can have several benefits to the user, whether you carry them with you (in your pocket) or if they are adorned on jewelry, gemstones can give off a constant energetic vibe from themselves into the wearer and user.
Gemstone spheres are excellent to use as body massagers if roll them slowly over your body from head to toe. Gemstone spheres also can increase your divination abilities just by having one beside you as you use your crystal ball, scrying mirror, or pendulum. Worry stones are popular for their ability to soothe and relieve stress from an individual who rubs them with their index finger and thumb. No matter what gemstone you use in your rituals and spells, depending on how they are used, and whether or not you cleanse and recharge them regularly, they can provide an invaluable service within your Wiccan supplies and witchcraft supplies.
Crystals - Crystals are very popular and often essential ritual tools for many reasons. Crystals are excellent for absorbing energy and then storing it which can be useful for all sorts of different ritual purposes such as augmenting ones energy and transferring energies from individual to individual. Crystals are also good for healing minor ailments such as headaches, sore muscles, and other small aches and pains. Being natural elements from the earth crystals are an excellent choice to use to represent Earth in spells and rituals but are also good for protection, healing, dreaming, astral travel, and love as well.
Gemstone Sets - Gemstone sets can be handy as a traveling tool since they are portable and usually come with small velveteen or cloth bags. Gemstone sets are usually a spell or ritual within themselves or they can be used for other purposes such as feng shui, divination, relieving stress, and building up one’s own energies. Gemstone sets can come with all manner of gemstones both natural and tumbled and may also contain natural minerals and fossils for added benefits.
Natural Gemstones - Natural gemstones are gemstones that are as much in their natural state as possible with only small amounts of smoothing and polishing done to them before they are sold to the public. Natural gemstones are the strongest gemstones one can use for any ritual and spells that require such aids. Gemstones can be used for almost any spell or ritual and are popular because not only are they portable and easy to carry or conceal but they also absorb and hold a large amount of energy indefinitely. Some popular gemstones include amethyst, bloodstone, citrine, jasper, black onyx, tourmaline, hematite, and moonstones.
Tumbled Stones - Tumbled stones are gemstones that have been tumbled for an extended period of time for polishing and smoothing purposes. Tumbled stones are typically sold in bulk and since their outer compositions have changed they are typically cheaper then natural gemstones. Tumbled stones are popular among kids as collectibles they can also be used in rituals and spells for many different purposes to substitute natural gemstones if they are not available.
Worry Stones - Worry stones are flat round stones that are rubbed between the index finger and thumb that is supposed to make ones worries and stress level fade away. This action is a type of stimulation which can often create feelings of calm and reduce stress levels. Often being made from gemstones worry stones can also be used for ritual and spell purposes when a gemstone is needed or called for. Worry stones being small and portable are often used for mojo and spell bags being placed within the bag and then carried around one's person after the spell has been placed over it.
Crystal Balls and Scrying Mirrors are two popular tools used for divination. If the medium is a crystal ball or scrying mirror, the visions may come from the tiny inclusions, web-like faults, or the cloudy glow within the crystal ball or reflective surface or the scrying mirror under low light (e.g. candlelight).Once this stage is achieved, the scryer begins a free association with the perceived images suggested. The technique of deliberately looking for and declaring these initial images aloud, however trivial or irrelevant they may seem to the conscious mind, is done with the intent of deepening the trance state, wherein the scryer hears their own disassociated voice affirming what is seen within the concentrated state in a kind of feedback loop. This process culminates in the achievement of a final and desired end stage in which rich visual images and dramatic stories seem to be projected within the medium itself, or directly within the mind's eye of the scryer, like an inner movie. This overall process reputedly allows the scryer to "see" relevant events or images within the chosen medium.
Crystal Ball - A crystal ball is a crystal or glass ball believed to aid clairvoyance. It is sometimes known as a shew stone. Celtic tribes, known to exist in Britain as early as 2,000 B.C., were unified by a priesthood known as Druids. Druids are one of the earliest known peoples to have used crystal balls in divination. It's interesting to note that Druid religion had similarities to megalithic religion of an "earlier" Britain, thus it is possible the first use of crystal divination might have come from them. Later, during central Europe's Medieval Period (500 – 1500 AD), seers, wizards, sorcerers, psychics, gypsie, fortune tellers, and all other types of diviners also used crystal balls to "see" into the past, present, or future.
Scrying Mirror - Scrying is a magick practice that involves seeing things psychically in a medium such as a scrying mirror. A scrying mirrors purpose is to obtain spiritual visions and more rarely for purposes of divination or fortune-telling. Scrying mirrors are used most commonly because reflective, translucent, or luminescent substances are considered best for seeing into the future. Scrying mirrors have been used in many cultures as a means of divining the past, present, or future. Depending on the culture and practice, the visions that come when one stares into the scrying mirror are thought to come from the Gods, Goddesses, spirits, the psychic mind, the devil, or the subconscious.
Pendulums - A pendulum is a weight (such as a stone, crystal) attached to a string or chain. Pendulums can be used as tools of divination to answer specific questions. When you ask a question, the pendulum will swing one way for "yes" and the other way for "no". Some pendulums swing clockwise and counter clockwise others will swing from side to side. It is always best before you ask your question to have the pendulum show you which way it swings for yes and no. A good example of this would be to say to your pendulum "show me yes" and see which way it moves. Then do the same for "show me no".
Dowsing Rods - Dowsing is a type of divination employed in attempts to locate ground water, buried metals or ores, gemstones, oil, gravesites, and many other objects and materials, as well as so-called currents of earth radiation, without the use of scientific apparatus. Dowsing is also known as divining.
Runes - Runes are an ancient Germanic alphabet, used for writing, divination and magick. In Rune Casting, each Rune has a letter inscribed on it, which is translated into a word or phrase representing forces of nature and man. Rune sets can be made of stone, wood, bones, glass and more. The inscription on the Rune set and number of Runes may vary, according to which alphabet is used.
Statues – Statues are representation of images captured into statuary. Within the Wiccan and Neo Pagan faith, statues are used commonly as a symbol of worship and often place on the altar to depict the various gods and goddesses that wiccans, pagans, and practitioners of witchcraft worship. Many of the Greek, Norse, Egyptian, and Roman gods are commonly prayed to just as much as the gods represented in Wicca and Paganism.
Talismans - Talismans are magical objects similar to an amulet in their use within rituals and spells. Although talismans and amulets are often compared as the same thing, talismans can also be any magically charged or otherwise useful tool or item for rituals and spells. Talismans can be anything from shells to horseshoes, to charms and stones. The point of a talisman is to help the practitioner amplify their spell or ritual for their intent and can be a powerful addition to any ritual or spell.
Dream Catchers - A dream catcher is an ancient Native American handmade decoration that is hung above one's head while they sleep to catch any bad dreams that the sleeper may have. Dream catchers are commonly made from natural materials includes real bird feathers, wood, thread, fabric, and beads. Any materials can be used and one is only limited to the imagination for the designs. A common theme among all dream catchers however, is that they all have a web like pattern within their circular shape which is where the dreams are "caught".
Sun Catchers - Sun catchers are reflective glass or mother of pearl pieces that is hung indoors, so that it "catches the light" from a nearby source, usually hung at windows. Sun catchers can be hung outdoors as well but they function much better when pressed up against a window to catch the rays of the sun coming through the glass.
Wind Chimes - Hanging or perched atop a place of your choosing wind chimes bring peaceful serenity to your day with their gentle soft ringing through the winds of the Earth. Perfect for just outside your window, or even inside for everyday decoration. Wind chimes produce inharmonic (as opposed to harmonic) spectra, although if they are hung at about 1/5th of their length (22.4%), the higher partials are dampened and the fundamental is brought out. This is common practice in high-quality wind chimes, which are also usually hung so the center ball strikes the center of the wind chimes length. Frequency is determined by the length, width, thickness, and material. There are formulas that help predict the proper length to achieve a particular note, though a bit of fine tuning is often needed. Wind chimes are thought to be good luck in parts of Asia and are used in Feng Shui. In Japan they produce pleasant ringing sounds and are hung by the windows during hot humid summers in order to bring cooling relief.
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